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3 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"><head><meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" /><title>Writing and Generating Documentation</title><meta name="generator" content="DocBook XSL-NS Stylesheets V1.76.1" /><meta name="keywords" content="ISO C++, documentation, style, docbook, doxygen" /><meta name="keywords" content="&#10;      ISO C++&#10;    , &#10;      library&#10;    " /><meta name="keywords" content="&#10;      ISO C++&#10;    , &#10;      runtime&#10;    , &#10;      library&#10;    " /><link rel="home" href="../index.html" title="The GNU C++ Library" /><link rel="up" href="appendix_porting.html" title="Appendix B.  Porting and Maintenance" /><link rel="prev" href="appendix_porting.html" title="Appendix B.  Porting and Maintenance" /><link rel="next" href="internals.html" title="Porting to New Hardware or Operating Systems" /></head><body><div class="navheader"><table width="100%" summary="Navigation header"><tr><th colspan="3" align="center">Writing and Generating Documentation</th></tr><tr><td width="20%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="appendix_porting.html">Prev</a> </td><th width="60%" align="center">Appendix B. 
4   Porting and Maintenance
6 </th><td width="20%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="internals.html">Next</a></td></tr></table><hr /></div><div class="section" title="Writing and Generating Documentation"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h2 class="title" style="clear: both"><a id="appendix.porting.doc"></a>Writing and Generating Documentation</h2></div></div></div><div class="section" title="Introduction"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="doc.intro"></a>Introduction</h3></div></div></div><p>
7       Documentation for the GNU C++ Library is created from three
8       independent sources: a manual, a FAQ, and an API reference.
9     </p><p>
10       The sub-directory <code class="filename">doc</code>
11       within the main source directory contains
12       <code class="filename">Makefile.am</code> and
13       <code class="filename">Makefile.in</code>, which provide rules for
14       generating documentation, described in excruciating detail
15       below. The <code class="filename">doc</code>
16       sub-directory also contains three directories: <code class="filename">doxygen</code>, which contains scripts and
17       fragments for <span class="command"><strong>doxygen</strong></span>, <code class="filename">html</code>, which contains an html
18       version of the manual, and <code class="filename">xml</code>, which contains an xml version
19       of the manual.
20     </p><p>
21       Diverging from established documentation conventions in the rest
22       of the GCC project, libstdc++ does not use Texinfo as a markup
23       language. Instead, Docbook is used to create the manual and the
24       FAQ, and Doxygen is used to construct the API
25       reference. Although divergent, this conforms to the GNU Project
26       recommendations as long as the output is of sufficient quality,
27       as per
28       <a class="link" href="http://www.gnu.org/prep/standards/standards.html#Documentation" target="_top">
29       GNU Manuals</a>.
30     </p></div><div class="section" title="Generating Documentation"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="doc.generation"></a>Generating Documentation</h3></div></div></div><p>
31       Certain Makefile rules are required by the GNU Coding
32       Standards. These standard rules generate HTML, PDF, XML, or man
33       files. For each of the generative rules, there is an additional
34       install rule that is used to install any generated documentation
35       files into the prescribed installation directory. Files are
36       installed into <code class="filename">share/doc</code>
37       or <code class="filename">share/man</code> directories.
38     </p><p>
39       The standard Makefile rules are conditionally supported, based
40       on the results of examining the host environment for
41       prerequisites at configuration time. If requirements are not
42       found, the rule is aliased to a dummy rule that does nothing,
43       and produces no documentation. If the requirements are found,
44       the rule forwards to a private rule that produces the requested
45       documentation.
46     </p><p>
47       For more details on what prerequisites were found and where,
48       please consult the file <code class="filename">config.log</code> in the
49       libstdc++ build directory. Compare this log to what is expected
50       for the relevant Makefile conditionals:
51       <code class="literal">BUILD_INFO</code>, <code class="literal">BUILD_XML</code>,
52       <code class="literal">BUILD_HTML</code>, <code class="literal">BUILD_MAN</code>,
53       <code class="literal">BUILD_PDF</code>, and <code class="literal">BUILD_EPUB</code>.
54     </p><p>
55       Supported Makefile rules:
56     </p><div class="variablelist"><dl><dt><span class="term">
57           <span class="emphasis"><em>make html</em></span>
58         , </span><span class="term">
59           <span class="emphasis"><em>make install-html</em></span>
60         </span></dt><dd><p>
61             Generates multi-page HTML documentation, and installs it
62             in the following directories:
63           </p><p>
64             <code class="filename">
65               doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-api.html
66             </code>
67           </p><p>
68             <code class="filename">
69               doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-manual.html
70             </code>
71           </p></dd><dt><span class="term">
72           <span class="emphasis"><em>make pdf</em></span>
73         , </span><span class="term">
74           <span class="emphasis"><em>make install-pdf</em></span>
75         </span></dt><dd><p>
76             Generates indexed PDF documentation, and installs it as
77             the following files:
78           </p><p>
79             <code class="filename">doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-api.pdf</code>
80           </p><p>
81             <code class="filename">doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-manual.pdf</code>
82           </p></dd><dt><span class="term">
83           <span class="emphasis"><em>make man</em></span>
84         , </span><span class="term">
85           <span class="emphasis"><em>make install-man</em></span>
86         </span></dt><dd><p>
87             Generates man pages, and installs it in the following directory:
88           </p><p>
89             <code class="filename">man/man3/</code>
90           </p><p>
91             The generated man pages are namespace-qualified, so to look at
92             the man page for <code class="classname">vector</code>, one would use
93             <span class="command"><strong>man std::vector</strong></span>.
94           </p></dd><dt><span class="term">
95           <span class="emphasis"><em>make epub</em></span>
96         , </span><span class="term">
97           <span class="emphasis"><em>make install-epub</em></span>
98         </span></dt><dd><p>
99             Generates documentation in the ebook/portable electronic
100             reader format called Epub, and installs it as the
101             following file.
102           </p><p>
103             <code class="filename">doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-manual.epub</code>
104           </p></dd><dt><span class="term">
105           <span class="emphasis"><em>make xml</em></span>
106         , </span><span class="term">
107           <span class="emphasis"><em>make install-xml</em></span>
108         </span></dt><dd><p>
109             Generates single-file XML documentation, and installs it
110             as the following files:
111           </p><p>
112             <code class="filename">doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-api-single.xml</code>
113           </p><p>
114             <code class="filename">doc/libstdc++/libstdc++-manual-single.xml</code>
115           </p></dd></dl></div><p>
116       Makefile rules for several other formats are explicitly not
117       supported, and are always aliased to dummy rules. These
118       unsupported formats are: <span class="emphasis"><em>info</em></span>,
119       <span class="emphasis"><em>ps</em></span>, and <span class="emphasis"><em>dvi</em></span>.
120     </p></div><div class="section" title="Doxygen"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="doc.doxygen"></a>Doxygen</h3></div></div></div><div class="section" title="Prerequisites"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="doxygen.prereq"></a>Prerequisites</h4></div></div></div><div class="table"><a id="id732372"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table B.1. Doxygen Prerequisites</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Doxygen Prerequisites" border="1"><colgroup><col align="center" class="c1" /><col align="center" class="c2" /><col align="center" class="c3" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="center">Tool</th><th align="center">Version</th><th align="center">Required By</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="center">coreutils</td><td align="center">8.5</td><td align="center">all</td></tr><tr><td align="center">bash</td><td align="center">4.1</td><td align="center">all</td></tr><tr><td align="center">doxygen</td><td align="center"></td><td align="center">all</td></tr><tr><td align="center">graphviz</td><td align="center">2.26</td><td align="center">graphical hierarchies</td></tr><tr><td align="center">pdflatex</td><td align="center">2007-59</td><td align="center">pdf output</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>
121         Prerequisite tools are Bash 2.0 or later,
122         <a class="link" href="http://www.doxygen.org/" target="_top">Doxygen</a>, and
123         the <a class="link" href="http://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/" target="_top">GNU
124         coreutils</a>. (GNU versions of find, xargs, and possibly
125         sed and grep are used, just because the GNU versions make
126         things very easy.) 
127       </p><p>
128         To generate the pretty pictures and hierarchy
129         graphs, the
130         <a class="link" href="http://www.graphviz.org" target="_top">Graphviz</a> package
131         will need to be installed. For PDF
132         output, <a class="link" href="http://www.tug.org/applications/pdftex/" target="_top">
133         pdflatex</a> is required.
134       </p><p>
135         Be warned the PDF file generated via doxygen is extremely
136         large. At last count, the PDF file is over three thousand
137         pages. Generating this document taxes the underlying TeX
138         formatting system, and will require the expansion of TeX's memory
139         capacity. Specifically, the <code class="literal">pool_size</code>
140         variable in the configuration file <code class="filename">texmf.cnf</code> may
141         need to be increased by a minimum factor of two.
142       </p></div><div class="section" title="Generating the Doxygen Files"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="doxygen.rules"></a>Generating the Doxygen Files</h4></div></div></div><p>
143         The following Makefile rules run Doxygen to generate HTML
144         docs, XML docs, XML docs as a single file, PDF docs, and the
145         man pages. These rules are not conditional! If the required
146         tools are not found, or are the wrong versions, the rule may
147         end in an error.
148       </p><p>
149       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-html-doxygen</code></strong></pre><p>
150       </p><p>
151       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-xml-doxygen</code></strong></pre><p>
152       </p><p>
153       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-xml-single-doxygen</code></strong></pre><p>
154       </p><p>
155       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-pdf-doxygen</code></strong></pre><p>
156       </p><p>
157       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-man-doxygen</code></strong></pre><p>
158       </p><p>
159         Generated files are output into separate sub directories of
160         <code class="filename">doc/doxygen/</code> in the
161         build directory, based on the output format. For instance, the
162         HTML docs will be in <code class="filename">doc/doxygen/html</code>.
163       </p><p>
164         Careful observers will see that the Makefile rules simply call
165         a script from the source tree, <code class="filename">run_doxygen</code>, which
166         does the actual work of running Doxygen and then (most
167         importantly) massaging the output files. If for some reason
168         you prefer to not go through the Makefile, you can call this
169         script directly. (Start by passing <code class="literal">--help</code>.)
170       </p><p>
171         If you wish to tweak the Doxygen settings, do so by editing
172         <code class="filename">doc/doxygen/user.cfg.in</code>. Notes to fellow
173         library hackers are written in triple-# comments.
174       </p></div><div class="section" title="Markup"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="doxygen.markup"></a>Markup</h4></div></div></div><p>
175         In general, libstdc++ files should be formatted according to
176         the rules found in the
177         <a class="link" href="source_code_style.html" title="Coding Style">Coding Standard</a>. Before
178         any doxygen-specific formatting tweaks are made, please try to
179         make sure that the initial formatting is sound.
180       </p><p>
181         Adding Doxygen markup to a file (informally called
182         <span class="quote">“<span class="quote">doxygenating</span>”</span>) is very simple. The Doxygen manual can be
183         found
184         <a class="link" href="http://www.stack.nl/~dimitri/doxygen/download.html#latestman" target="_top">here</a>.
185         We try to use a very-recent version of Doxygen.
186       </p><p>
187         For classes, use
188         <code class="classname">deque</code>/<code class="classname">vector</code>/<code class="classname">list</code>
189         and <code class="classname">std::pair</code> as examples.  For
190         functions, see their member functions, and the free functions
191         in <code class="filename">stl_algobase.h</code>. Member functions of
192         other container-like types should read similarly to these
193         member functions.
194       </p><p>
195         Some commentary to accompany
196         the first list in the <a class="link" href="http://www.stack.nl/~dimitri/doxygen/docblocks.html" target="_top">Special
197         Documentation Blocks</a> section of
198         the Doxygen manual:
199       </p><div class="orderedlist"><ol class="orderedlist" type="1"><li class="listitem"><p>For longer comments, use the Javadoc style...</p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
200             ...not the Qt style. The intermediate *'s are preferred.
201           </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
202             Use the triple-slash style only for one-line comments (the
203             <span class="quote">“<span class="quote">brief</span>”</span> mode).
204           </p></li><li class="listitem"><p>
205             This is disgusting. Don't do this.
206           </p></li></ol></div><p>
207         Some specific guidelines:
208       </p><p>
209         Use the @-style of commands, not the !-style. Please be
210         careful about whitespace in your markup comments. Most of the
211         time it doesn't matter; doxygen absorbs most whitespace, and
212         both HTML and *roff are agnostic about whitespace. However,
213         in &lt;pre&gt; blocks and @code/@endcode sections, spacing can
214         have <span class="quote">“<span class="quote">interesting</span>”</span> effects.
215       </p><p>
216         Use either kind of grouping, as
217         appropriate. <code class="filename">doxygroups.cc</code> exists for this
218         purpose. See <code class="filename">stl_iterator.h</code> for a good example
219         of the <span class="quote">“<span class="quote">other</span>”</span> kind of grouping.
220       </p><p>
221         Please use markup tags like @p and @a when referring to things
222         such as the names of function parameters. Use @e for emphasis
223         when necessary. Use @c to refer to other standard names.
224         (Examples of all these abound in the present code.)
225       </p><p>
226         Complicated math functions should use the multi-line
227         format. An example from <code class="filename">random.h</code>:
228       </p><p>
229 </p><div class="literallayout"><p><br />
230 /**<br />
231  * @brief A model of a linear congruential random number generator.<br />
232  *<br />
233  * @f[<br />
234  *     x_{i+1}\leftarrow(ax_{i} + c) \bmod m<br />
235  * @f]<br />
236  */<br />
237 </p></div><p>
238       </p><p>
239         One area of note is the markup required for
240         <code class="literal">@file</code> markup in header files. Two details
241         are important: for filenames that have the same name in
242         multiple directories, include part of the installed path to
243         disambiguate. For example:
244       </p><p>
245 </p><div class="literallayout"><p><br />
246 /** @file debug/vector<br />
247  *  This file is a GNU debug extension to the Standard C++ Library.<br />
248  */<br />
249 </p></div><p>
250       </p><p>
251         The other relevant detail for header files is the use of a
252         libstdc++-specific doxygen alias that helps distinguish
253         between public header files (like <code class="filename">random</code>)
254         from implementation or private header files (like
255         <code class="filename">bits/c++config.h</code>.) This alias is spelled
256         <code class="literal">@headername</code> and can take one or two
257         arguments that detail the public header file or files that
258         should be included to use the contents of the file. All header
259         files that are not intended for direct inclusion must use
260         <code class="literal">headername</code> in the <code class="literal">file</code>
261         block. An example:
262       </p><p>
263 </p><div class="literallayout"><p><br />
264 /** @file bits/basic_string.h<br />
265  *  This is an internal header file, included by other library headers.<br />
266  *  Do not attempt to use it directly. @headername{string}<br />
267  */<br />
268 </p></div><p>
269       </p><p>
270         Be careful about using certain, special characters when
271         writing Doxygen comments. Single and double quotes, and
272         separators in filenames are two common trouble spots. When in
273         doubt, consult the following table.
274       </p><div class="table"><a id="id732889"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table B.2. HTML to Doxygen Markup Comparison</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="HTML to Doxygen Markup Comparison" border="1"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">HTML</th><th align="left">Doxygen</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">\</td><td align="left">\\</td></tr><tr><td align="left">"</td><td align="left">\"</td></tr><tr><td align="left">'</td><td align="left">\'</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;i&gt;</td><td align="left">@a word</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;b&gt;</td><td align="left">@b word</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;code&gt;</td><td align="left">@c word</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;em&gt;</td><td align="left">@a word</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;em&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;em&gt;two words or more&lt;/em&gt;</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /></div></div><div class="section" title="Docbook"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h3 class="title"><a id="doc.docbook"></a>Docbook</h3></div></div></div><div class="section" title="Prerequisites"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="docbook.prereq"></a>Prerequisites</h4></div></div></div><div class="table"><a id="id733051"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table B.3. Docbook Prerequisites</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Docbook Prerequisites" border="1"><colgroup><col align="center" class="c1" /><col align="center" class="c2" /><col align="center" class="c3" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="center">Tool</th><th align="center">Version</th><th align="center">Required By</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="center">docbook5-style-xsl</td><td align="center">1.76.1</td><td align="center">all</td></tr><tr><td align="center">xsltproc</td><td align="center">1.1.26</td><td align="center">all</td></tr><tr><td align="center">xmllint</td><td align="center">2.7.7</td><td align="center">validation</td></tr><tr><td align="center">dblatex</td><td align="center">0.3</td><td align="center">pdf output</td></tr><tr><td align="center">pdflatex</td><td align="center">2007-59</td><td align="center">pdf output</td></tr><tr><td align="center">docbook2X</td><td align="center">0.8.8</td><td align="center">info output</td></tr><tr><td align="center">epub3 stylesheets</td><td align="center">b3</td><td align="center">epub output</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>
275         Editing the DocBook sources requires an XML editor. Many
276         exist: some notable options
277         include <span class="command"><strong>emacs</strong></span>, <span class="application">Kate</span>,
278         or <span class="application">Conglomerate</span>.
279       </p><p>
280         Some editors support special <span class="quote">“<span class="quote">XML Validation</span>”</span>
281         modes that can validate the file as it is
282         produced. Recommended is the <span class="command"><strong>nXML Mode</strong></span>
283         for <span class="command"><strong>emacs</strong></span>.
284       </p><p>
285         Besides an editor, additional DocBook files and XML tools are
286         also required.
287       </p><p>
288         Access to the DocBook 5.0 stylesheets and schema is required. The
289         stylesheets are usually packaged by vendor, in something
290         like <code class="filename">docbook5-style-xsl</code>. To exactly match
291         generated output, please use a version of the stylesheets
292         equivalent
293         to <code class="filename">docbook5-style-xsl-1.75.2-3</code>. The
294         installation directory for this package corresponds to
295         the <code class="literal">XSL_STYLE_DIR</code>
296         in <code class="filename">doc/Makefile.am</code> and defaults
297         to <code class="filename">/usr/share/sgml/docbook/xsl-ns-stylesheets</code>.
298       </p><p>
299         For processing XML, an XSLT processor and some style
300         sheets are necessary. Defaults are <span class="command"><strong>xsltproc</strong></span>
301         provided by <code class="filename">libxslt</code>.
302       </p><p>
303         For validating the XML document, you'll need
304         something like <span class="command"><strong>xmllint</strong></span> and access to the
305         relevant DocBook schema. These are provided
306         by a vendor package like <code class="filename">libxml2</code> and <code class="filename">docbook5-schemas-5.0-4</code>
307       </p><p>
308         For PDF output, something that transforms valid Docbook XML to PDF is
309         required. Possible solutions include <a class="link" href="http://dblatex.sourceforge.net" target="_top">dblatex</a>,
310         <span class="command"><strong>xmlto</strong></span>, or <span class="command"><strong>prince</strong></span>. Of
311         these, <span class="command"><strong>dblatex</strong></span> is the default. Other
312         options are listed on the DocBook web <a class="link" href="http://wiki.docbook.org/topic/DocBookPublishingTools" target="_top">pages</a>. Please
313         consult the <code class="email">&lt;<a class="email" href="mailto:libstdc++@gcc.gnu.org">libstdc++@gcc.gnu.org</a>&gt;</code> list when
314         preparing printed manuals for current best practice and
315         suggestions.
316       </p><p>
317         For Texinfo output, something that transforms valid Docbook
318         XML to Texinfo is required. The default choice is <a class="link" href="http://docbook2x.sourceforge.net/" target="_top">docbook2X</a>.
319       </p><p>
320         For epub output, the <a class="link" href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/docbook/files/epub3/" target="_top">stylesheets</a> for EPUB3 are required. These stylesheets are still in development. To validate the created file, <a class="link" href="https://code.google.com/p/epubcheck/" target="_top">epubcheck</a> is necessary.
321       </p></div><div class="section" title="Generating the DocBook Files"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="docbook.rules"></a>Generating the DocBook Files</h4></div></div></div><p>
322         The following Makefile rules generate (in order): an HTML
323         version of all the DocBook documentation, a PDF version of the
324         same, and a single XML document.  These rules are not
325         conditional! If the required tools are not found, or are the
326         wrong versions, the rule may end in an error.
327       </p><p>
328       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-html-docbook</code></strong></pre><p>
329       </p><p>
330       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-pdf-docbook</code></strong></pre><p>
331       </p><p>
332       </p><pre class="screen"><strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-xml-single-docbook</code></strong></pre><p>
333       </p><p>
334         Generated files are output into separate sub directores of
335         <code class="filename">doc/docbook/</code> in the
336         build directory, based on the output format. For instance, the
337         HTML docs will be in <code class="filename">doc/docbook/html</code>.
338       </p><p>
339         If the Docbook stylesheets are installed in a custom location,
340         one can use the variable <code class="literal">XSL_STYLE_DIR</code> to
341         override the Makefile defaults. For example:
342       </p><pre class="screen">
343         <strong class="userinput"><code>
344 make <code class="literal">XSL_STYLE_DIR="/usr/share/xml/docbook/stylesheet/nwalsh"</code> doc-html-docbook
345         </code></strong>
346       </pre></div><div class="section" title="Editing and Validation"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="docbook.validation"></a>Editing and Validation</h4></div></div></div><p>
347         After editing the xml sources, please make sure that the XML
348         documentation and markup is still valid. This can be
349         done easily, with the following validation rule:
350       </p><pre class="screen">
351         <strong class="userinput"><code>make doc-xml-validate-docbook</code></strong>
352       </pre><p>
353         This is equivalent to doing:
354       </p><pre class="screen">
355         <strong class="userinput"><code>
356           xmllint --noout --valid <code class="filename">xml/index.xml</code>
357         </code></strong>
358       </pre><p>
359         Please note that individual sections and chapters of the
360         manual can be validated by substituting the file desired for
361         <code class="filename">xml/index.xml</code> in the command
362         above. Reducing scope in this manner can be helpful when
363         validation on the entire manual fails.
364       </p><p>
365         All Docbook xml sources should always validate. No excuses!
366       </p></div><div class="section" title="File Organization and Basics"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="docbook.examples"></a>File Organization and Basics</h4></div></div></div><div class="literallayout"><p><br />
367       <span class="emphasis"><em>Which files are important</em></span><br />
368 <br />
369       All Docbook files are in the directory<br />
370       libstdc++-v3/doc/xml<br />
371 <br />
372       Inside this directory, the files of importance:<br />
373       spine.xml          - index to documentation set<br />
374       manual/spine.xml  - index to manual<br />
375       manual/*.xml      - individual chapters and sections of the manual<br />
376       faq.xml           - index to FAQ<br />
377       api.xml           - index to source level / API<br />
378 <br />
379       All *.txml files are template xml files, i.e., otherwise empty files with<br />
380       the correct structure, suitable for filling in with new information.<br />
381 <br />
382       <span class="emphasis"><em>Canonical Writing Style</em></span><br />
383 <br />
384       class template<br />
385       function template<br />
386       member function template<br />
387       (via C++ Templates, Vandevoorde)<br />
388 <br />
389       class in namespace std: allocator, not std::allocator<br />
390 <br />
391       header file: iostream, not &lt;iostream&gt;<br />
392 <br />
393 <br />
394       <span class="emphasis"><em>General structure</em></span><br />
395 <br />
396       &lt;set&gt;<br />
397       &lt;book&gt;<br />
398       &lt;/book&gt;<br />
399 <br />
400       &lt;book&gt;<br />
401       &lt;chapter&gt;<br />
402       &lt;/chapter&gt;<br />
403       &lt;/book&gt;<br />
404 <br />
405       &lt;book&gt;<br />
406       &lt;part&gt;<br />
407       &lt;chapter&gt;<br />
408       &lt;section&gt;<br />
409       &lt;/section&gt;<br />
410 <br />
411       &lt;sect1&gt;<br />
412       &lt;/sect1&gt;<br />
413 <br />
414       &lt;sect1&gt;<br />
415       &lt;sect2&gt;<br />
416       &lt;/sect2&gt;<br />
417       &lt;/sect1&gt;<br />
418       &lt;/chapter&gt;<br />
419 <br />
420       &lt;chapter&gt;<br />
421       &lt;/chapter&gt;<br />
422       &lt;/part&gt;<br />
423       &lt;/book&gt;<br />
424 <br />
425       &lt;/set&gt;<br />
426     </p></div></div><div class="section" title="Markup By Example"><div class="titlepage"><div><div><h4 class="title"><a id="docbook.markup"></a>Markup By Example</h4></div></div></div><p>
427         Complete details on Docbook markup can be found in the DocBook
428         Element Reference,
429         <a class="link" href="http://www.docbook.org/tdg/en/html/part2.html" target="_top">online</a>.
430         An incomplete reference for HTML to Docbook conversion is
431         detailed in the table below.
432       </p><div class="table"><a id="id733562"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table B.4. HTML to Docbook XML Markup Comparison</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="HTML to Docbook XML Markup Comparison" border="1"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">HTML</th><th align="left">Docbook</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&lt;p&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;para&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;pre&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;computeroutput&gt;, &lt;programlisting&gt;,
433         &lt;literallayout&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;ul&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;itemizedlist&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;ol&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;orderedlist&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;il&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;listitem&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;dl&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;variablelist&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;dt&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;term&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;dd&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;listitem&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;a href=""&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;ulink url=""&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;code&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;literal&gt;, &lt;programlisting&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;strong&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;emphasis&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;em&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;emphasis&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">"</td><td align="left">&lt;quote&gt;</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /><p>
434   And examples of detailed markup for which there are no real HTML
435   equivalents are listed in the table below.
436 </p><div class="table"><a id="id733764"></a><p class="title"><strong>Table B.5. Docbook XML Element Use</strong></p><div class="table-contents"><table summary="Docbook XML Element Use" border="1"><colgroup><col align="left" class="c1" /><col align="left" class="c2" /></colgroup><thead><tr><th align="left">Element</th><th align="left">Use</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td align="left">&lt;structname&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;structname&gt;char_traits&lt;/structname&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;classname&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;classname&gt;string&lt;/classname&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;function&gt;</td><td align="left">
437         <p>&lt;function&gt;clear()&lt;/function&gt;</p>
438         <p>&lt;function&gt;fs.clear()&lt;/function&gt;</p>
439       </td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;type&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;type&gt;long long&lt;/type&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;varname&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;varname&gt;fs&lt;/varname&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;literal&gt;</td><td align="left">
440         <p>&lt;literal&gt;-Weffc++&lt;/literal&gt;</p>
441         <p>&lt;literal&gt;rel_ops&lt;/literal&gt;</p>
442       </td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;constant&gt;</td><td align="left">
443         <p>&lt;constant&gt;_GNU_SOURCE&lt;/constant&gt;</p>
444         <p>&lt;constant&gt;3.0&lt;/constant&gt;</p>
445       </td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;command&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;command&gt;g++&lt;/command&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;errortext&gt;</td><td align="left">&lt;errortext&gt;In instantiation of&lt;/errortext&gt;</td></tr><tr><td align="left">&lt;filename&gt;</td><td align="left">
446         <p>&lt;filename class="headerfile"&gt;ctype.h&lt;/filename&gt;</p>
447         <p>&lt;filename class="directory"&gt;/home/gcc/build&lt;/filename&gt;</p>
448         <p>&lt;filename class="libraryfile"&gt;libstdc++.so&lt;/filename&gt;</p>
449       </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><br class="table-break" /></div></div></div><div class="navfooter"><hr /><table width="100%" summary="Navigation footer"><tr><td width="40%" align="left"><a accesskey="p" href="appendix_porting.html">Prev</a> </td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="u" href="appendix_porting.html">Up</a></td><td width="40%" align="right"> <a accesskey="n" href="internals.html">Next</a></td></tr><tr><td width="40%" align="left" valign="top">Appendix B. 
450   Porting and Maintenance
452  </td><td width="20%" align="center"><a accesskey="h" href="../index.html">Home</a></td><td width="40%" align="right" valign="top"> Porting to New Hardware or Operating Systems</td></tr></table></div></body></html>