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fix typo of 5a54b532d970b9d76862ee47b5364bcbc2f82330
[nkf/nkf.git] / nkf.c
diff --git a/nkf.c b/nkf.c
index 80a6add..b58c437 100644 (file)
--- a/nkf.c
+++ b/nkf.c
@@ -1,54 +1,53 @@
-/** Network Kanji Filter. (PDS Version)
-** -*- coding: ISO-2022-JP -*-
-************************************************************************
-** Copyright (C) 1987, Fujitsu LTD. (Itaru ICHIKAWA)
-** \e$BO"Mm@h!'\e(B \e$B!J3t!KIY;NDL8&5f=j!!%=%U%H#38&!!;T@n!!;j\e(B
-** \e$B!J\e(BE-Mail Address: ichikawa@flab.fujitsu.co.jp\e$B!K\e(B
-** Copyright (C) 1996,1998
-** Copyright (C) 2002
-** \e$BO"Mm@h!'\e(B \e$BN05eBg3X>pJs9)3X2J\e(B \e$B2OLn\e(B \e$B??<#\e(B  mime/X0208 support
-** \e$B!J\e(BE-Mail Address: kono@ie.u-ryukyu.ac.jp\e$B!K\e(B
-** \e$BO"Mm@h!'\e(B COW for DOS & Win16 & Win32 & OS/2
-** \e$B!J\e(BE-Mail Address: GHG00637@niftyserve.or.p\e$B!K\e(B
-**
-**    \e$B$3$N%=!<%9$N$$$+$J$kJ#<L!$2~JQ!$=$@5$b5vBz$7$^$9!#$?$@$7!"\e(B
-**    \e$B$=$N:]$K$O!"C/$,9W8%$7$?$r<($9$3$NItJ,$r;D$9$3$H!#\e(B
-**    \e$B:FG[I[$d;(;o$NIUO?$J$I$NLd$$9g$o$;$bI,MW$"$j$^$;$s!#\e(B
-**    \e$B1DMxMxMQ$b>e5-$KH?$7$J$$HO0O$G5v2D$7$^$9!#\e(B
-**    \e$B%P%$%J%j$NG[I[$N:]$K$O\e(Bversion message\e$B$rJ]B8$9$k$3$H$r>r7o$H$7$^$9!#\e(B
-**    \e$B$3$N%W%m%0%i%`$K$D$$$F$OFC$K2?$NJ]>Z$b$7$J$$!"0-$7$+$i$:!#\e(B
-**
-**    Everyone is permitted to do anything on this program
-**    including copying, modifying, improving,
-**    as long as you don't try to pretend that you wrote it.
-**    i.e., the above copyright notice has to appear in all copies.
-**    Binary distribution requires original version messages.
-**    You don't have to ask before copying, redistribution or publishing.
-**    THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE.
-***********************************************************************/
-
-/***********************************************************************
- * \e$B8=:_!"\e(Bnkf \e$B$O\e(B SorceForge \e$B$K$F%a%s%F%J%s%9$,B3$1$i$l$F$$$^$9!#\e(B
- * http://sourceforge.jp/projects/nkf/
-***********************************************************************/
-#define NKF_IDENT "$Id: nkf.c,v 1.175 2008/02/07 19:59:13 naruse Exp $"
-#define NKF_VERSION "2.0.8"
-#define NKF_RELEASE_DATE "2008-02-07"
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1987, Fujitsu LTD. (Itaru ICHIKAWA).
+ * Copyright (c) 1996-2013, The nkf Project.
+ *
+ * This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
+ * warranty. In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
+ * arising from the use of this software.
+ *
+ * Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
+ * including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
+ * freely, subject to the following restrictions:
+ *
+ * 1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
+ * claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
+ * in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
+ * appreciated but is not required.
+ *
+ * 2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be
+ * misrepresented as being the original software.
+ *
+ * 3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.
+ */
+#define NKF_VERSION "2.1.4"
+#define NKF_RELEASE_DATE "2015-12-12"
 #define COPY_RIGHT \
-    "Copyright (C) 1987, FUJITSU LTD. (I.Ichikawa),2000 S. Kono, COW\n" \
-    "Copyright (C) 2002-2008 Kono, Furukawa, Naruse, mastodon"
+    "Copyright (C) 1987, FUJITSU LTD. (I.Ichikawa).\n" \
+    "Copyright (C) 1996-2015, The nkf Project."
 
 #include "config.h"
 #include "nkf.h"
 #include "utf8tbl.h"
+#ifdef __WIN32__
+#include <windows.h>
+#include <locale.h>
+#endif
+#if defined(__OS2__)
+# define INCL_DOS
+# define INCL_DOSERRORS
+# include <os2.h>
+#endif
+#include <assert.h>
+
 
 /* state of output_mode and input_mode
 
    c2           0 means ASCII
-                JIS_X_0201_1976_K
-                ISO_8859_1
-                JIS_X_0208
-                EOF      all termination
+   JIS_X_0201_1976_K
+   ISO_8859_1
+   JIS_X_0208
+   EOF      all termination
    c1           32bit data
 
  */
@@ -130,20 +129,20 @@ enum nkf_encodings {
     JIS_X_0212        = 0x1159, /* D */
     /* JIS_X_0213_2000_1 = 0x1228, */ /* O */
     JIS_X_0213_2 = 0x1229, /* P */
-    JIS_X_0213_1 = 0x1233, /* Q */
+    JIS_X_0213_1 = 0x1233 /* Q */
 };
 
-nkf_char s_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
-nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
-nkf_char w_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
-nkf_char w_iconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
-nkf_char w_iconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
-void j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
-void s_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
-void e_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
-void w_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
-void w_oconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
-void w_oconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static nkf_char s_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
+static nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
+static nkf_char w_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
+static nkf_char w_iconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
+static nkf_char w_iconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0);
+static void j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static void s_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static void e_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static void w_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static void w_oconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
+static void w_oconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1);
 
 typedef struct {
     const char *name;
@@ -211,6 +210,8 @@ struct {
 } encoding_name_to_id_table[] = {
     {"US-ASCII",               ASCII},
     {"ASCII",                  ASCII},
+    {"646",                    ASCII},
+    {"ROMAN8",                 ASCII},
     {"ISO-2022-JP",            ISO_2022_JP},
     {"ISO2022JP-CP932",                CP50220},
     {"CP50220",                        CP50220},
@@ -222,6 +223,8 @@ struct {
     {"ISO-2022-JP-2004",       ISO_2022_JP_2004},
     {"SHIFT_JIS",              SHIFT_JIS},
     {"SJIS",                   SHIFT_JIS},
+    {"MS_Kanji",               SHIFT_JIS},
+    {"PCK",                    SHIFT_JIS},
     {"WINDOWS-31J",            WINDOWS_31J},
     {"CSWINDOWS31J",           WINDOWS_31J},
     {"CP932",                  WINDOWS_31J},
@@ -263,6 +266,8 @@ struct {
 #define            DEFAULT_ENCIDX ISO_2022_JP
 #elif defined(DEFAULT_CODE_SJIS)
 #define            DEFAULT_ENCIDX SHIFT_JIS
+#elif defined(DEFAULT_CODE_WINDOWS_31J)
+#define            DEFAULT_ENCIDX WINDOWS_31J
 #elif defined(DEFAULT_CODE_EUC)
 #define            DEFAULT_ENCIDX EUC_JP
 #elif defined(DEFAULT_CODE_UTF8)
@@ -271,7 +276,7 @@ struct {
 
 
 #define                is_alnum(c)  \
-            (('a'<=c && c<='z')||('A'<= c && c<='Z')||('0'<=c && c<='9'))
+    (('a'<=c && c<='z')||('A'<= c && c<='Z')||('0'<=c && c<='9'))
 
 /* I don't trust portablity of toupper */
 #define nkf_toupper(c)  (('a'<=c && c<='z')?(c-('a'-'A')):c)
@@ -285,15 +290,16 @@ struct {
 #define nkf_isprint(c) (SP<=c && c<='~')
 #define nkf_isgraph(c) ('!'<=c && c<='~')
 #define hex2bin(c) (('0'<=c&&c<='9') ? (c-'0') : \
-                    ('A'<=c&&c<='F') ? (c-'A'+10) : \
-                    ('a'<=c&&c<='f') ? (c-'a'+10) : 0)
+                   ('A'<=c&&c<='F') ? (c-'A'+10) : \
+                   ('a'<=c&&c<='f') ? (c-'a'+10) : 0)
 #define bin2hex(c) ("0123456789ABCDEF"[c&15])
 #define is_eucg3(c2) (((unsigned short)c2 >> 8) == SS3)
 #define nkf_noescape_mime(c) ((c == CR) || (c == LF) || \
-    ((c > SP) && (c < DEL) && (c != '?') && (c != '=') && (c != '_') \
-     && (c != '(') && (c != ')') && (c != '.') && (c != 0x22)))
+                             ((c > SP) && (c < DEL) && (c != '?') && (c != '=') && (c != '_') \
+                              && (c != '(') && (c != ')') && (c != '.') && (c != 0x22)))
 
 #define is_ibmext_in_sjis(c2) (CP932_TABLE_BEGIN <= c2 && c2 <= CP932_TABLE_END)
+#define nkf_byte_jisx0201_katakana_p(c) (SP <= c && c <= 0x5F)
 
 #define         HOLD_SIZE       1024
 #if defined(INT_IS_SHORT)
@@ -317,7 +323,7 @@ extern POINT _BufferSize;
 #endif
 
 struct input_code{
-    char *name;
+    const char *name;
     nkf_char stat;
     nkf_char score;
     nkf_char index;
@@ -327,11 +333,10 @@ struct input_code{
     int _file_stat;
 };
 
-static char *input_codename = NULL; /* NULL: unestablished, "": BINARY */
+static const char *input_codename = NULL; /* NULL: unestablished, "": BINARY */
 static nkf_encoding *input_encoding = NULL;
 static nkf_encoding *output_encoding = NULL;
 
-static int kanji_convert(FILE *f);
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE) || defined(UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE)
 /* UCS Mapping
  * 0: Shift_JIS, eucJP-ascii
@@ -351,6 +356,7 @@ static  int     no_cp932ext_f = FALSE;
 /* ignore ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE */
 static  int     no_best_fit_chars_f = FALSE;
 static  int     input_endian = ENDIAN_BIG;
+static  int     input_bom_f = FALSE;
 static  nkf_char     unicode_subchar = '?'; /* the regular substitution character */
 static  void    (*encode_fallback)(nkf_char c) = NULL;
 static  void    w_status(struct input_code *, nkf_char);
@@ -378,6 +384,8 @@ static unsigned char   stdibuf[IOBUF_SIZE];
 static unsigned char   stdobuf[IOBUF_SIZE];
 #endif
 
+#define NKF_UNSPECIFIED (-TRUE)
+
 /* flags */
 static int             unbuf_f = FALSE;
 static int             estab_f = FALSE;
@@ -392,7 +400,7 @@ static int             mimebuf_f = FALSE;      /* MIME buffered input */
 static int             broken_f = FALSE;       /* convert ESC-less broken JIS */
 static int             iso8859_f = FALSE;      /* ISO8859 through */
 static int             mimeout_f = FALSE;       /* base64 mode */
-static int             x0201_f = X0201_DEFAULT; /* convert JIS X 0201 */
+static int             x0201_f = NKF_UNSPECIFIED;   /* convert JIS X 0201 */
 static int             iso2022jp_f = FALSE;    /* replace non ISO-2022-JP with GETA */
 
 #ifdef UNICODE_NORMALIZATION
@@ -420,8 +428,10 @@ static nkf_char (*i_uungetc)(nkf_char c ,FILE *f) = std_ungetc;
 #define nkf_char_euc3_new(c) ((c) | PREFIX_EUCG3)
 #define nkf_char_unicode_new(c) ((c) | CLASS_UNICODE)
 #define nkf_char_unicode_p(c) ((c & CLASS_MASK) == CLASS_UNICODE)
-#define nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(c) ((c & VALUE_MASK) <= NKF_INT32_C(UNICODE_BMP_MAX))
-#define nkf_char_unicode_value_p(c) ((c & VALUE_MASK) <= NKF_INT32_C(UNICODE_MAX))
+#define nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(c) ((c & VALUE_MASK) <= UNICODE_BMP_MAX)
+#define nkf_char_unicode_value_p(c) ((c & VALUE_MASK) <= UNICODE_MAX)
+
+#define UTF16_TO_UTF32(lead, trail) (((lead) << 10) + (trail) - NKF_INT32_C(0x35FDC00))
 
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
 static int numchar_f = FALSE;
@@ -438,7 +448,7 @@ static nkf_char (*iconv_for_check)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0) = 0;
 #endif
 
 static int guess_f = 0; /* 0: OFF, 1: ON, 2: VERBOSE */
-static  void    set_input_codename(char *codename);
+static  void    set_input_codename(const char *codename);
 
 #ifdef EXEC_IO
 static int exec_f = 0;
@@ -467,8 +477,10 @@ struct input_code input_code_list[] = {
     {"Shift_JIS", 0, 0, 0, {0, 0, 0}, s_status, s_iconv, 0},
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
     {"UTF-8",     0, 0, 0, {0, 0, 0}, w_status, w_iconv, 0},
+    {"UTF-16",     0, 0, 0, {0, 0, 0}, NULL, w_iconv16, 0},
+    {"UTF-32",     0, 0, 0, {0, 0, 0}, NULL, w_iconv32, 0},
 #endif
-    {0}
+    {NULL,        0, 0, 0, {0, 0, 0}, NULL, NULL, 0}
 };
 
 static int              mimeout_mode = 0; /* 0, -1, 'Q', 'B', 1, 2 */
@@ -496,14 +508,16 @@ static int             fold_margin  = FOLD_MARGIN;
 
 /* process default */
 
-nkf_char no_connection2(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
+static nkf_char
+no_connection2(ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c2, ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c1, ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c0)
 {
     fprintf(stderr,"nkf internal module connection failure.\n");
-    exit(1);
+    exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
     return 0; /* LINT */
 }
 
-void no_connection(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+no_connection(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     no_connection2(c2,c1,0);
 }
@@ -609,6 +623,27 @@ static const unsigned char ev[]= {
     0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
     0x00,0x00};
 
+/* X0201 kana to X0213 conversion table for han-daguten */
+/* 90-9F A0-DF */
+static const unsigned char ev_x0213[]= {
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x25,0x77,0x25,0x78,
+    0x25,0x79,0x25,0x7a,0x25,0x7b,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x25,0x7c,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x25,0x7d,0x00,0x00,
+    0x25,0x7e,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,0x00,
+    0x00,0x00};
+
 
 /* X0208 kigou conversion table */
 /* 0x8140 - 0x819e */
@@ -646,31 +681,51 @@ static nkf_char prev_cr = 0; /* CR or 0 */
 static int             end_check;
 #endif /*Easy Win */
 
-#define STD_GC_BUFSIZE (256)
-nkf_char std_gc_buf[STD_GC_BUFSIZE];
-nkf_char std_gc_ndx;
+static void *
+nkf_xmalloc(size_t size)
+{
+    void *ptr;
+
+    if (size == 0) size = 1;
+
+    ptr = malloc(size);
+    if (ptr == NULL) {
+       perror("can't malloc");
+       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+    }
 
-char* nkf_strcpy(const char *str)
+    return ptr;
+}
+
+static void *
+nkf_xrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size)
 {
-    char* result = malloc(strlen(str) + 1);
-    if (!result){
-       perror(str);
-       return "";
+    if (size == 0) size = 1;
+
+    ptr = realloc(ptr, size);
+    if (ptr == NULL) {
+       perror("can't realloc");
+       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
     }
-    strcpy(result, str);
-    return result;
+
+    return ptr;
 }
 
-static void nkf_str_upcase(const char *src, char *dest, size_t length)
+#define nkf_xfree(ptr) free(ptr)
+
+static int
+nkf_str_caseeql(const char *src, const char *target)
 {
-    int i = 0;
-    for (; i < length && src[i]; i++) {
-       dest[i] = nkf_toupper(src[i]);
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0; src[i] && target[i]; i++) {
+       if (nkf_toupper(src[i]) != nkf_toupper(target[i])) return FALSE;
     }
-    dest[i] = 0;
+    if (src[i] || target[i]) return FALSE;
+    else return TRUE;
 }
 
-static nkf_encoding *nkf_enc_from_index(int idx)
+static nkf_encoding*
+nkf_enc_from_index(int idx)
 {
     if (idx < 0 || NKF_ENCODING_TABLE_SIZE <= idx) {
        return 0;
@@ -678,19 +733,21 @@ static nkf_encoding *nkf_enc_from_index(int idx)
     return &nkf_encoding_table[idx];
 }
 
-static int nkf_enc_find_index(const char *name)
+static int
+nkf_enc_find_index(const char *name)
 {
-    int i, index = -1;
-    if (*name == 'X' && *(name+1) == '-') name += 2;
+    int i;
+    if (name[0] == 'X' && *(name+1) == '-') name += 2;
     for (i = 0; encoding_name_to_id_table[i].id >= 0; i++) {
-       if (strcmp(name, encoding_name_to_id_table[i].name) == 0) {
+       if (nkf_str_caseeql(encoding_name_to_id_table[i].name, name)) {
            return encoding_name_to_id_table[i].id;
        }
     }
-    return index;
+    return -1;
 }
 
-static nkf_encoding *nkf_enc_find(const char *name)
+static nkf_encoding*
+nkf_enc_find(const char *name)
 {
     int idx = -1;
     idx = nkf_enc_find_index(name);
@@ -704,135 +761,212 @@ static nkf_encoding *nkf_enc_find(const char *name)
 #define nkf_enc_to_iconv(enc) nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc)->iconv
 #define nkf_enc_to_oconv(enc) nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc)->oconv
 #define nkf_enc_asciicompat(enc) (\
-    nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingASCII ||\
-    nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingISO_2022_JP)
+                                 nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingASCII ||\
+                                 nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingISO_2022_JP)
 #define nkf_enc_unicode_p(enc) (\
-    nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_8 ||\
-    nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_16 ||\
-    nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_32)
+                               nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_8 ||\
+                               nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_16 ||\
+                               nkf_enc_to_base_encoding(enc) == &NkfEncodingUTF_32)
 #define nkf_enc_cp5022x_p(enc) (\
-    nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50220 ||\
-    nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50221 ||\
-    nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50222)
+                               nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50220 ||\
+                               nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50221 ||\
+                               nkf_enc_to_index(enc) == CP50222)
 
 #ifdef DEFAULT_CODE_LOCALE
-static char* nkf_locale_charmap()
+static const char*
+nkf_locale_charmap(void)
 {
 #ifdef HAVE_LANGINFO_H
     return nl_langinfo(CODESET);
 #elif defined(__WIN32__)
-    return sprintf("CP%d", GetACP());
-#else
+    static char buf[16];
+    sprintf(buf, "CP%d", GetACP());
+    return buf;
+#elif defined(__OS2__)
+# if defined(INT_IS_SHORT)
+    /* OS/2 1.x */
     return NULL;
+# else
+    /* OS/2 32bit */
+    static char buf[16];
+    ULONG ulCP[1], ulncp;
+    DosQueryCp(sizeof(ulCP), ulCP, &ulncp);
+    if (ulCP[0] == 932 || ulCP[0] == 943)
+        strcpy(buf, "Shift_JIS");
+    else
+        sprintf(buf, "CP%lu", ulCP[0]);
+    return buf;
+# endif
 #endif
+    return NULL;
 }
 
-static nkf_encoding* nkf_locale_encoding()
+static nkf_encoding*
+nkf_locale_encoding(void)
 {
     nkf_encoding *enc = 0;
-    char *encname = nkf_locale_charmap();
+    const char *encname = nkf_locale_charmap();
     if (encname)
        enc = nkf_enc_find(encname);
-    if (enc < 0) enc = 0;
     return enc;
 }
 #endif /* DEFAULT_CODE_LOCALE */
 
-static nkf_encoding* nkf_default_encoding()
+static nkf_encoding*
+nkf_utf8_encoding(void)
+{
+    return &nkf_encoding_table[UTF_8];
+}
+
+static nkf_encoding*
+nkf_default_encoding(void)
 {
     nkf_encoding *enc = 0;
 #ifdef DEFAULT_CODE_LOCALE
     enc = nkf_locale_encoding();
-#elif DEFAULT_ENCIDX
+#elif defined(DEFAULT_ENCIDX)
     enc = nkf_enc_from_index(DEFAULT_ENCIDX);
 #endif
+    if (!enc) enc = nkf_utf8_encoding();
     return enc;
 }
 
+typedef struct {
+    long capa;
+    long len;
+    nkf_char *ptr;
+} nkf_buf_t;
+
+static nkf_buf_t *
+nkf_buf_new(int length)
+{
+    nkf_buf_t *buf = nkf_xmalloc(sizeof(nkf_buf_t));
+    buf->ptr = nkf_xmalloc(sizeof(nkf_char) * length);
+    buf->capa = length;
+    buf->len = 0;
+    return buf;
+}
+
+#if 0
+static void
+nkf_buf_dispose(nkf_buf_t *buf)
+{
+    nkf_xfree(buf->ptr);
+    nkf_xfree(buf);
+}
+#endif
+
+#define nkf_buf_length(buf) ((buf)->len)
+#define nkf_buf_empty_p(buf) ((buf)->len == 0)
+
+static nkf_char
+nkf_buf_at(nkf_buf_t *buf, int index)
+{
+    assert(index <= buf->len);
+    return buf->ptr[index];
+}
+
+static void
+nkf_buf_clear(nkf_buf_t *buf)
+{
+    buf->len = 0;
+}
+
+static void
+nkf_buf_push(nkf_buf_t *buf, nkf_char c)
+{
+    if (buf->capa <= buf->len) {
+       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
+    }
+    buf->ptr[buf->len++] = c;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+nkf_buf_pop(nkf_buf_t *buf)
+{
+    assert(!nkf_buf_empty_p(buf));
+    return buf->ptr[--buf->len];
+}
+
+/* Normalization Form C */
 #ifndef PERL_XS
 #ifdef WIN32DLL
 #define fprintf dllprintf
 #endif
 
-void version(void)
+static void
+version(void)
 {
     fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,"Network Kanji Filter Version " NKF_VERSION " (" NKF_RELEASE_DATE ") \n" COPY_RIGHT "\n");
 }
 
-void usage(void)
+static void
+usage(void)
 {
     fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
-           "USAGE:  nkf(nkf32,wnkf,nkf2) -[flags] [in file] .. [out file for -O flag]\n"
-           "Flags:\n"
-           "b,u      Output is buffered (DEFAULT),Output is unbuffered\n"
-           "j,s,e,w  Output code is ISO-2022-JP, Shift JIS, EUC-JP, UTF-8N\n"
+           "Usage:  nkf -[flags] [--] [in file] .. [out file for -O flag]\n"
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
-           "         After 'w' you can add more options. -w[ 8 [0], 16 [[BL] [0]] ]\n"
+           " j/s/e/w  Specify output encoding ISO-2022-JP, Shift_JIS, EUC-JP\n"
+           "          UTF options is -w[8[0],{16,32}[{B,L}[0]]]\n"
+#else
 #endif
-           "J,S,E,W  Input assumption is JIS 7 bit , Shift JIS, EUC-JP, UTF-8\n"
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
-           "         After 'W' you can add more options. -W[ 8, 16 [BL] ] \n"
-#endif
-           "t        no conversion\n"
-           "i[@B]    Specify the Esc Seq for JIS X 0208-1978/83 (DEFAULT B)\n"
-           "o[BJH]   Specify the Esc Seq for ASCII/Roman        (DEFAULT B)\n"
-           "r        {de/en}crypt ROT13/47\n"
-           "h        1 katakana->hiragana, 2 hiragana->katakana, 3 both\n"
-           "m[BQSN0] MIME decode [B:base64,Q:quoted,S:strict,N:non-strict,0:no decode]\n"
-           "M[BQ]    MIME encode [B:base64 Q:quoted]\n"
-           "l        ISO8859-1 (Latin-1) support\n"
-           "f/F      Folding: -f60 or -f or -f60-10 (fold margin 10) F preserve nl\n"
-           "Z[0-4]   Default/0: Convert JISX0208 Alphabet to ASCII\n"
-           "         1: Kankaku to one space  2: to two spaces  3: HTML Entity\n"
-           "         4: JISX0208 Katakana to JISX0201 Katakana\n"
-           "X,x      Assume X0201 kana in MS-Kanji, -x preserves X0201\n"
-           "B[0-2]   Broken input  0: missing ESC,1: any X on ESC-[($]-X,2: ASCII on NL\n"
-#ifdef MSDOS
-           "T        Text mode output\n"
+           " J/S/E/W  Specify input encoding ISO-2022-JP, Shift_JIS, EUC-JP\n"
+           "          UTF option is -W[8,[16,32][B,L]]\n"
+#else
+           " J/S/E    Specify output encoding ISO-2022-JP, Shift_JIS, EUC-JP\n"
 #endif
-           "O        Output to File (DEFAULT 'nkf.out')\n"
-           "I        Convert non ISO-2022-JP charactor to GETA\n"
-           "d,c      Convert line breaks  -d: LF  -c: CRLF\n"
-           "-L[uwm]  line mode u:LF w:CRLF m:CR (DEFAULT noconversion)\n"
-           "v, V     Show this usage. V: show configuration\n"
-           "\n"
-           "Long name options\n"
-           " --ic=<input codeset>  --oc=<output codeset>\n"
-           "                   Specify the input or output codeset\n"
-           " --fj  --unix --mac  --windows\n"
-           " --jis  --euc  --sjis  --utf8  --utf16  --mime  --base64\n"
-           "                   Convert for the system or code\n"
-           " --hiragana  --katakana  --katakana-hiragana\n"
-           "                   To Hiragana/Katakana Conversion\n"
-           " --prefix=         Insert escape before troublesome characters of Shift_JIS\n"
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
+           " m[BQSN0] MIME decode [B:base64,Q:quoted,S:strict,N:nonstrict,0:no decode]\n"
+           " M[BQ]    MIME encode [B:base64 Q:quoted]\n"
+           " f/F      Folding: -f60 or -f or -f60-10 (fold margin 10) F preserve nl\n"
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
+           " Z[0-4]   Default/0: Convert JISX0208 Alphabet to ASCII\n"
+           "          1: Kankaku to one space  2: to two spaces  3: HTML Entity\n"
+           "          4: JISX0208 Katakana to JISX0201 Katakana\n"
+           " X,x      Convert Halfwidth Katakana to Fullwidth or preserve it\n"
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
+           " O        Output to File (DEFAULT 'nkf.out')\n"
+           " L[uwm]   Line mode u:LF w:CRLF m:CR (DEFAULT noconversion)\n"
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
+           " --ic=<encoding>        Specify the input encoding\n"
+           " --oc=<encoding>        Specify the output encoding\n"
+           " --hiragana --katakana  Hiragana/Katakana Conversion\n"
+           " --katakana-hiragana    Converts each other\n"
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
 #ifdef INPUT_OPTION
-           " --cap-input, --url-input  Convert hex after ':' or '%%'\n"
+           " --{cap, url}-input     Convert hex after ':' or '%%'\n"
 #endif
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
-           " --numchar-input   Convert Unicode Character Reference\n"
+           " --numchar-input        Convert Unicode Character Reference\n"
 #endif
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
            " --fb-{skip, html, xml, perl, java, subchar}\n"
-           "                   Specify how nkf handles unassigned characters\n"
+           "                        Specify unassigned character's replacement\n"
 #endif
+           );
+    fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
 #ifdef OVERWRITE
-           " --in-place[=SUFFIX]  --overwrite[=SUFFIX]\n"
-           "                   Overwrite original listed files by filtered result\n"
-           "                   --overwrite preserves timestamp of original files\n"
+           " --in-place[=SUF]       Overwrite original files\n"
+           " --overwrite[=SUF]      Preserve timestamp of original files\n"
 #endif
-           " -g  --guess       Guess the input code\n"
-           " --help  --version Show this help/the version\n"
-           "                   For more information, see also man nkf\n"
-           "\n");
+           " -g --guess             Guess the input code\n"
+           " -v --version           Print the version\n"
+           " --help/-V              Print this help / configuration\n"
+           );
     version();
 }
 
-void show_configuration(void)
+static void
+show_configuration(void)
 {
     fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
            "Summary of my nkf " NKF_VERSION " (" NKF_RELEASE_DATE ") configuration:\n"
-           "  nkf identity:\n"
-           "    " NKF_IDENT "\n"
            "  Compile-time options:\n"
            "    Compiled at:                 " __DATE__ " " __TIME__ "\n"
           );
@@ -840,10 +974,10 @@ void show_configuration(void)
            "    Default output encoding:     "
 #ifdef DEFAULT_CODE_LOCALE
            "LOCALE (%s)\n", nkf_enc_name(nkf_default_encoding())
-#elif DEFAULT_ENCIDX
+#elif defined(DEFAULT_ENCIDX)
            "CONFIG (%s)\n", nkf_enc_name(nkf_default_encoding())
 #else
-            "NONE\n"
+           "NONE\n"
 #endif
           );
     fprintf(HELP_OUTPUT,
@@ -881,7 +1015,8 @@ void show_configuration(void)
 #endif /*PERL_XS*/
 
 #ifdef OVERWRITE
-char *get_backup_filename(const char *suffix, const char *filename)
+static char*
+get_backup_filename(const char *suffix, const char *filename)
 {
     char *backup_filename;
     int asterisk_count = 0;
@@ -893,12 +1028,7 @@ char *get_backup_filename(const char *suffix, const char *filename)
     }
 
     if(asterisk_count){
-       backup_filename = malloc(strlen(suffix) + (asterisk_count * (filename_length - 1)) + 1);
-       if (!backup_filename){
-           perror("Can't malloc backup filename.");
-           return NULL;
-       }
-
+       backup_filename = nkf_xmalloc(strlen(suffix) + (asterisk_count * (filename_length - 1)) + 1);
        for(i = 0, j = 0; suffix[i];){
            if(suffix[i] == '*'){
                backup_filename[j] = '\0';
@@ -911,8 +1041,8 @@ char *get_backup_filename(const char *suffix, const char *filename)
        }
        backup_filename[j] = '\0';
     }else{
-       j = strlen(suffix) + filename_length;
-       backup_filename = malloc( + 1);
+       j = filename_length + strlen(suffix);
+       backup_filename = nkf_xmalloc(j + 1);
        strcpy(backup_filename, filename);
        strcat(backup_filename, suffix);
        backup_filename[j] = '\0';
@@ -922,12 +1052,13 @@ char *get_backup_filename(const char *suffix, const char *filename)
 #endif
 
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
-void nkf_each_char_to_hex(void (*f)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1), nkf_char c)
+static void
+nkf_each_char_to_hex(void (*f)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1), nkf_char c)
 {
     int shift = 20;
     c &= VALUE_MASK;
     while(shift >= 0){
-       if(c >= 1<<shift){
+       if(c >= NKF_INT32_C(1)<<shift){
            while(shift >= 0){
                (*f)(0, bin2hex(c>>shift));
                shift -= 4;
@@ -939,7 +1070,8 @@ void nkf_each_char_to_hex(void (*f)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1), nkf_char c)
     return;
 }
 
-void encode_fallback_html(nkf_char c)
+static void
+encode_fallback_html(nkf_char c)
 {
     (*oconv)(0, '&');
     (*oconv)(0, '#');
@@ -962,7 +1094,8 @@ void encode_fallback_html(nkf_char c)
     return;
 }
 
-void encode_fallback_xml(nkf_char c)
+static void
+encode_fallback_xml(nkf_char c)
 {
     (*oconv)(0, '&');
     (*oconv)(0, '#');
@@ -972,7 +1105,8 @@ void encode_fallback_xml(nkf_char c)
     return;
 }
 
-void encode_fallback_java(nkf_char c)
+static void
+encode_fallback_java(nkf_char c)
 {
     (*oconv)(0, '\\');
     c &= VALUE_MASK;
@@ -992,7 +1126,8 @@ void encode_fallback_java(nkf_char c)
     return;
 }
 
-void encode_fallback_perl(nkf_char c)
+static void
+encode_fallback_perl(nkf_char c)
 {
     (*oconv)(0, '\\');
     (*oconv)(0, 'x');
@@ -1002,7 +1137,8 @@ void encode_fallback_perl(nkf_char c)
     return;
 }
 
-void encode_fallback_subchar(nkf_char c)
+static void
+encode_fallback_subchar(nkf_char c)
 {
     c = unicode_subchar;
     (*oconv)((c>>8)&0xFF, c&0xFF);
@@ -1020,7 +1156,7 @@ static const struct {
     {"euc","e"},
     {"euc-input","E"},
     {"fj","jm"},
-    {"help","v"},
+    {"help",""},
     {"jis","j"},
     {"jis-input","J"},
     {"mac","sLm"},
@@ -1030,7 +1166,7 @@ static const struct {
     {"sjis","s"},
     {"sjis-input","S"},
     {"unix","eLu"},
-    {"version","V"},
+    {"version","v"},
     {"windows","sLw"},
     {"hiragana","h1"},
     {"katakana","h2"},
@@ -1090,15 +1226,17 @@ static const struct {
     {"prefix=", ""},
 };
 
-static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
+static void
+set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 {
     switch (nkf_enc_to_index(enc)) {
     case ISO_8859_1:
        iso8859_f = TRUE;
        break;
-    case CP50220:
     case CP50221:
     case CP50222:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
+    case CP50220:
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = TRUE;
 #endif
@@ -1120,6 +1258,7 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
     case SHIFT_JIS:
        break;
     case WINDOWS_31J:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = TRUE;
 #endif
@@ -1137,10 +1276,11 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case EUC_JP:
-       break;
+       break;
     case EUCJP_NKF:
-       break;
+       break;
     case CP51932:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = TRUE;
 #endif
@@ -1149,6 +1289,7 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case EUCJP_MS:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = FALSE;
 #endif
@@ -1157,6 +1298,7 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case EUCJP_ASCII:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = FALSE;
 #endif
@@ -1169,6 +1311,7 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
        x0213_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        cp51932_f = FALSE;
+       if (cp932inv_f == TRUE) cp932inv_f = FALSE;
 #endif
        break;
     case EUC_JISX0213:
@@ -1206,11 +1349,11 @@ static void set_input_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
     }
 }
 
-static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
+static void
+set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 {
     switch (nkf_enc_to_index(enc)) {
     case CP50220:
-       x0201_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        if (cp932inv_f == TRUE) cp932inv_f = FALSE;
 #endif
@@ -1219,6 +1362,7 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case CP50221:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        if (cp932inv_f == TRUE) cp932inv_f = FALSE;
 #endif
@@ -1226,6 +1370,11 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
        ms_ucs_map_f = UCS_MAP_CP932;
 #endif
        break;
+    case ISO_2022_JP:
+#ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
+       if (cp932inv_f == TRUE) cp932inv_f = FALSE;
+#endif
+       break;
     case ISO_2022_JP_1:
        x0212_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
@@ -1233,6 +1382,7 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case ISO_2022_JP_3:
+    case ISO_2022_JP_2004:
        x0212_f = TRUE;
        x0213_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
@@ -1242,6 +1392,7 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
     case SHIFT_JIS:
        break;
     case WINDOWS_31J:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
        ms_ucs_map_f = UCS_MAP_CP932;
 #endif
@@ -1270,6 +1421,7 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case CP51932:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        if (cp932inv_f == TRUE) cp932inv_f = FALSE;
 #endif
@@ -1278,12 +1430,14 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
 #endif
        break;
     case EUCJP_MS:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
        x0212_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
        ms_ucs_map_f = UCS_MAP_MS;
 #endif
        break;
     case EUCJP_ASCII:
+       if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) x0201_f = FALSE;        /* -x specified implicitly */
        x0212_f = TRUE;
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
        ms_ucs_map_f = UCS_MAP_ASCII;
@@ -1320,6 +1474,7 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
        output_endian = ENDIAN_LITTLE;
        output_bom_f = TRUE;
        break;
+    case UTF_32:
     case UTF_32BE_BOM:
        output_bom_f = TRUE;
        break;
@@ -1335,84 +1490,102 @@ static void set_output_encoding(nkf_encoding *enc)
     }
 }
 
-struct input_code * find_inputcode_byfunc(nkf_char (*iconv_func)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0))
+static struct input_code*
+find_inputcode_byfunc(nkf_char (*iconv_func)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0))
 {
     if (iconv_func){
-        struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
-        while (p->name){
-            if (iconv_func == p->iconv_func){
-                return p;
-            }
-            p++;
-        }
+       struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
+       while (p->name){
+           if (iconv_func == p->iconv_func){
+               return p;
+           }
+           p++;
+       }
     }
     return 0;
 }
 
-void set_iconv(nkf_char f, nkf_char (*iconv_func)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0))
+static void
+set_iconv(nkf_char f, nkf_char (*iconv_func)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0))
 {
 #ifdef INPUT_CODE_FIX
     if (f || !input_encoding)
 #endif
-        if (estab_f != f){
-            estab_f = f;
-        }
+       if (estab_f != f){
+           estab_f = f;
+       }
 
     if (iconv_func
 #ifdef INPUT_CODE_FIX
-        && (f == -TRUE || !input_encoding) /* -TRUE means "FORCE" */
+       && (f == -TRUE || !input_encoding) /* -TRUE means "FORCE" */
 #endif
-        ){
-        iconv = iconv_func;
+       ){
+       iconv = iconv_func;
     }
 #ifdef CHECK_OPTION
     if (estab_f && iconv_for_check != iconv){
-        struct input_code *p = find_inputcode_byfunc(iconv);
-        if (p){
-            set_input_codename(p->name);
-            debug(p->name);
-        }
-        iconv_for_check = iconv;
+       struct input_code *p = find_inputcode_byfunc(iconv);
+       if (p){
+           set_input_codename(p->name);
+           debug(p->name);
+       }
+       iconv_for_check = iconv;
     }
 #endif
 }
 
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
-nkf_char x0212_shift(nkf_char c)
+static nkf_char
+x0212_shift(nkf_char c)
 {
     nkf_char ret = c;
     c &= 0x7f;
     if (is_eucg3(ret)){
-        if (0x75 <= c && c <= 0x7f){
-            ret = c + (0x109 - 0x75);
-        }
+       if (0x75 <= c && c <= 0x7f){
+           ret = c + (0x109 - 0x75);
+       }
     }else{
-        if (0x75 <= c && c <= 0x7f){
-            ret = c + (0x113 - 0x75);
-        }
+       if (0x75 <= c && c <= 0x7f){
+           ret = c + (0x113 - 0x75);
+       }
     }
     return ret;
 }
 
 
-nkf_char x0212_unshift(nkf_char c)
+static nkf_char
+x0212_unshift(nkf_char c)
 {
     nkf_char ret = c;
     if (0x7f <= c && c <= 0x88){
-        ret = c + (0x75 - 0x7f);
+       ret = c + (0x75 - 0x7f);
     }else if (0x89 <= c && c <= 0x92){
-        ret = PREFIX_EUCG3 | 0x80 | (c + (0x75 - 0x89));
+       ret = PREFIX_EUCG3 | 0x80 | (c + (0x75 - 0x89));
     }
     return ret;
 }
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
 
-nkf_char e2s_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static int
+is_x0213_2_in_x0212(nkf_char c1)
+{
+    static const char x0213_2_table[] =
+       {0, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1};
+    int ku = c1 - 0x20;
+    if (ku <= 15)
+       return x0213_2_table[ku]; /* 1, 3-5, 8, 12-15 */
+    if (78 <= ku && ku <= 94)
+       return 1;
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+e2s_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
     nkf_char ndx;
     if (is_eucg3(c2)){
        ndx = c2 & 0x7f;
-       if (x0213_f){
+       if (x0213_f && is_x0213_2_in_x0212(ndx)){
            if((0x21 <= ndx && ndx <= 0x2F)){
                if (p2) *p2 = ((ndx - 1) >> 1) + 0xec - ndx / 8 * 3;
                if (p1) *p1 = c1 + ((ndx & 1) ? ((c1 < 0x60) ? 0x1f : 0x20) : 0x7e);
@@ -1449,44 +1622,46 @@ nkf_char e2s_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
     return 0;
 }
 
-nkf_char s2e_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static nkf_char
+s2e_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
 #if defined(SHIFTJIS_CP932) || defined(X0212_ENABLE)
     nkf_char val;
 #endif
     static const char shift_jisx0213_s1a3_table[5][2] ={ { 1, 8}, { 3, 4}, { 5,12}, {13,14}, {15, 0} };
+    if (0xFC < c1) return 1;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
-    if (!cp932inv_f && is_ibmext_in_sjis(c2)){
-        val = shiftjis_cp932[c2 - CP932_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
-        if (val){
-            c2 = val >> 8;
-            c1 = val & 0xff;
-        }
+    if (!cp932inv_f && !x0213_f && is_ibmext_in_sjis(c2)){
+       val = shiftjis_cp932[c2 - CP932_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
+       if (val){
+           c2 = val >> 8;
+           c1 = val & 0xff;
+       }
     }
     if (cp932inv_f
-        && CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN <= c2 && c2 <= CP932INV_TABLE_END){
-        nkf_char c = cp932inv[c2 - CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
-        if (c){
-            c2 = c >> 8;
-            c1 = c & 0xff;
-        }
+       && CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN <= c2 && c2 <= CP932INV_TABLE_END){
+       val = cp932inv[c2 - CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
+       if (val){
+           c2 = val >> 8;
+           c1 = val & 0xff;
+       }
     }
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     if (!x0213_f && is_ibmext_in_sjis(c2)){
-        val = shiftjis_x0212[c2 - 0xfa][c1 - 0x40];
-        if (val){
-            if (val > 0x7FFF){
-                c2 = PREFIX_EUCG3 | ((val >> 8) & 0x7f);
-                c1 = val & 0xff;
-            }else{
-                c2 = val >> 8;
-                c1 = val & 0xff;
-            }
-            if (p2) *p2 = c2;
-            if (p1) *p1 = c1;
-            return 0;
-        }
+       val = shiftjis_x0212[c2 - 0xfa][c1 - 0x40];
+       if (val){
+           if (val > 0x7FFF){
+               c2 = PREFIX_EUCG3 | ((val >> 8) & 0x7f);
+               c1 = val & 0xff;
+           }else{
+               c2 = val >> 8;
+               c1 = val & 0xff;
+           }
+           if (p2) *p2 = c2;
+           if (p1) *p1 = c1;
+           return 0;
+       }
     }
 #endif
     if(c2 >= 0x80){
@@ -1519,45 +1694,47 @@ nkf_char s2e_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 }
 
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE) || defined(UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE)
-void nkf_unicode_to_utf8(nkf_char val, int *p1, int *p2, int *p3, int *p4)
+static void
+nkf_unicode_to_utf8(nkf_char val, nkf_char *p1, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p3, nkf_char *p4)
 {
     val &= VALUE_MASK;
     if (val < 0x80){
-        *p1 = val;
-        *p2 = 0;
-        *p3 = 0;
-        *p4 = 0;
+       *p1 = val;
+       *p2 = 0;
+       *p3 = 0;
+       *p4 = 0;
     }else if (val < 0x800){
        *p1 = 0xc0 | (val >> 6);
        *p2 = 0x80 | (val & 0x3f);
-        *p3 = 0;
-        *p4 = 0;
+       *p3 = 0;
+       *p4 = 0;
     } else if (nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(val)) {
-        *p1 = 0xe0 |  (val >> 12);
-        *p2 = 0x80 | ((val >>  6) & 0x3f);
-        *p3 = 0x80 | ( val        & 0x3f);
-        *p4 = 0;
+       *p1 = 0xe0 |  (val >> 12);
+       *p2 = 0x80 | ((val >>  6) & 0x3f);
+       *p3 = 0x80 | ( val        & 0x3f);
+       *p4 = 0;
     } else if (nkf_char_unicode_value_p(val)) {
-        *p1 = 0xe0 |  (val >> 16);
-        *p2 = 0x80 | ((val >> 12) & 0x3f);
-        *p3 = 0x80 | ((val >>  6) & 0x3f);
-        *p4 = 0x80 | ( val        & 0x3f);
+       *p1 = 0xf0 |  (val >> 18);
+       *p2 = 0x80 | ((val >> 12) & 0x3f);
+       *p3 = 0x80 | ((val >>  6) & 0x3f);
+       *p4 = 0x80 | ( val        & 0x3f);
     } else {
-        *p1 = 0;
-        *p2 = 0;
-        *p3 = 0;
-        *p4 = 0;
+       *p1 = 0;
+       *p2 = 0;
+       *p3 = 0;
+       *p4 = 0;
     }
 }
 
-nkf_char nkf_utf8_to_unicode(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
+static nkf_char
+nkf_utf8_to_unicode(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
 {
     nkf_char wc;
     if (c1 <= 0x7F) {
        /* single byte */
        wc = c1;
     }
-    else if (c1 <= 0xC3) {
+    else if (c1 <= 0xC1) {
        /* trail byte or invalid */
        return -1;
     }
@@ -1587,9 +1764,10 @@ nkf_char nkf_utf8_to_unicode(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
 #endif
 
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
-static int unicode_to_jis_common2(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0,
-                               const unsigned short *const *pp, nkf_char psize,
-                               nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static int
+unicode_to_jis_common2(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0,
+                      const unsigned short *const *pp, nkf_char psize,
+                      nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
     nkf_char c2;
     const unsigned short *p;
@@ -1607,14 +1785,14 @@ static int unicode_to_jis_common2(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0,
     val = p[c0];
     if (val == 0) return 1;
     if (no_cp932ext_f && (
-       (val>>8) == 0x2D || /* NEC special characters */
-       val > NKF_INT32_C(0xF300) /* IBM extended characters */
-       )) return 1;
+                         (val>>8) == 0x2D || /* NEC special characters */
+                         val > NKF_INT32_C(0xF300) /* IBM extended characters */
+                        )) return 1;
 
     c2 = val >> 8;
-   if (val > 0x7FFF){
-        c2 &= 0x7f;
-        c2 |= PREFIX_EUCG3;
+    if (val > 0x7FFF){
+       c2 &= 0x7f;
+       c2 |= PREFIX_EUCG3;
     }
     if (c2 == SO) c2 = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
     c1 = val & 0xFF;
@@ -1623,7 +1801,8 @@ static int unicode_to_jis_common2(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0,
     return 0;
 }
 
-static nkf_char unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static int
+unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
     const unsigned short *const *pp;
     const unsigned short *const *const *ppp;
@@ -1695,6 +1874,7 @@ static nkf_char unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP932 ? utf8_to_euc_2bytes_932 :
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_MS ? utf8_to_euc_2bytes_ms :
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP10001 ? utf8_to_euc_2bytes_mac :
+           x0213_f ? utf8_to_euc_2bytes_x0213 :
            utf8_to_euc_2bytes;
        ret =  unicode_to_jis_common2(c2, c1, pp, sizeof_utf8_to_euc_2bytes, p2, p1);
     }else if(c0 < 0xF0){
@@ -1722,10 +1902,10 @@ static nkf_char unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf
                case 0xE3:
                    switch(c1){
                    case 0x82:
-                           if(c0 == 0x94) return 1;
+                       if(c0 == 0x94) return 1;
                        break;
                    case 0x83:
-                           if(c0 == 0xBB) return 1;
+                       if(c0 == 0xBB) return 1;
                        break;
                    }
                    break;
@@ -1762,6 +1942,7 @@ static nkf_char unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP932 ? utf8_to_euc_3bytes_932 :
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_MS ? utf8_to_euc_3bytes_ms :
            ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP10001 ? utf8_to_euc_3bytes_mac :
+           x0213_f ? utf8_to_euc_3bytes_x0213 :
            utf8_to_euc_3bytes;
        ret = unicode_to_jis_common2(c1, c0, ppp[c2 - 0xE0], sizeof_utf8_to_euc_C2, p2, p1);
     }else return -1;
@@ -1779,7 +1960,17 @@ static nkf_char unicode_to_jis_common(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf
 }
 
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
-nkf_char e2w_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+#define X0213_SURROGATE_FIND(tbl, size, euc) do { \
+       int i; \
+       for (i = 0; i < size; i++) \
+           if (tbl[i][0] == euc) { \
+               low = tbl[i][2]; \
+               break; \
+           } \
+    } while (0)
+
+static nkf_char
+e2w_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     const unsigned short *p;
 
@@ -1792,23 +1983,26 @@ nkf_char e2w_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                return 0xA9;
            }
        }
-        p = euc_to_utf8_1byte;
+       p = euc_to_utf8_1byte;
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     } else if (is_eucg3(c2)){
        if(ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_ASCII&& c2 == NKF_INT32_C(0x8F22) && c1 == 0x43){
            return 0xA6;
        }
-        c2 = (c2&0x7f) - 0x21;
-        if (0<=c2 && c2<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_2bytes)
-           p = x0212_to_utf8_2bytes[c2];
-        else
-            return 0;
+       c2 = (c2&0x7f) - 0x21;
+       if (0<=c2 && c2<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_2bytes)
+           p =
+               x0213_f ? x0212_to_utf8_2bytes_x0213[c2] :
+               x0212_to_utf8_2bytes[c2];
+       else
+           return 0;
 #endif
     } else {
-        c2 &= 0x7f;
-        c2 = (c2&0x7f) - 0x21;
-        if (0<=c2 && c2<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_2bytes)
-            p =
+       c2 &= 0x7f;
+       c2 = (c2&0x7f) - 0x21;
+       if (0<=c2 && c2<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_2bytes)
+           p =
+               x0213_f ? euc_to_utf8_2bytes_x0213[c2] :
                ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_ASCII ? euc_to_utf8_2bytes[c2] :
                ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP10001 ? euc_to_utf8_2bytes_mac[c2] :
                euc_to_utf8_2bytes_ms[c2];
@@ -1817,41 +2011,74 @@ nkf_char e2w_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     }
     if (!p) return 0;
     c1 = (c1 & 0x7f) - 0x21;
-    if (0<=c1 && c1<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_1byte)
-       return p[c1];
+    if (0<=c1 && c1<sizeof_euc_to_utf8_1byte) {
+       nkf_char val = p[c1];
+       if (x0213_f && 0xD800<=val && val<=0xDBFF) {
+           nkf_char euc = (c2+0x21)<<8 | (c1+0x21);
+           nkf_char low = 0;
+           if (p==x0212_to_utf8_2bytes_x0213[c2]) {
+               X0213_SURROGATE_FIND(x0213_2_surrogate_table, sizeof_x0213_2_surrogate_table, euc);
+           } else {
+               X0213_SURROGATE_FIND(x0213_1_surrogate_table, sizeof_x0213_1_surrogate_table, euc);
+           }
+           if (!low) return 0;
+           return UTF16_TO_UTF32(val, low);
+       } else {
+           return val;
+       }
+    }
+    return 0;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+e2w_combining(nkf_char comb, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+{
+    nkf_char euc;
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_combining_chars; i++)
+       if (x0213_combining_chars[i] == comb)
+           break;
+    if (i >= sizeof_x0213_combining_chars)
+       return 0;
+    euc = (c2&0x7f)<<8 | (c1&0x7f);
+    for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_combining_table; i++)
+       if (x0213_combining_table[i][0] == euc)
+           return x0213_combining_table[i][1];
     return 0;
 }
 #endif
 
-nkf_char w2e_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static nkf_char
+w2e_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
     nkf_char ret = 0;
 
     if (!c1){
-        *p2 = 0;
-        *p1 = c2;
+       *p2 = 0;
+       *p1 = c2;
     }else if (0xc0 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xef) {
        ret =  unicode_to_jis_common(c2, c1, c0, p2, p1);
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
-        if (ret > 0){
-            if (p2) *p2 = 0;
-            if (p1) *p1 = nkf_char_unicode_new(nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c2, c1, c0, 0));
-            ret = 0;
-        }
+       if (ret > 0){
+           if (p2) *p2 = 0;
+           if (p1) *p1 = nkf_char_unicode_new(nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c2, c1, c0, 0));
+           ret = 0;
+       }
 #endif
     }
     return ret;
 }
 
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
-nkf_char w16e_conv(nkf_char val, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
+static nkf_char
+w16e_conv(nkf_char val, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 {
-    int c1, c2, c3, c4;
+    nkf_char c1, c2, c3, c4;
     nkf_char ret = 0;
     val &= VALUE_MASK;
     if (val < 0x80) {
-        *p2 = 0;
-        *p1 = val;
+       *p2 = 0;
+       *p1 = val;
     }
     else if (nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(val)){
        nkf_unicode_to_utf8(val, &c1, &c2, &c3, &c4);
@@ -1863,6 +2090,25 @@ nkf_char w16e_conv(nkf_char val, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
        }
     }
     else {
+       int i;
+       if (x0213_f) {
+           c1 = (val >> 10) + NKF_INT32_C(0xD7C0);   /* high surrogate */
+           c2 = (val & 0x3FF) + NKF_INT32_C(0xDC00); /* low surrogate */
+           for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_1_surrogate_table; i++)
+               if (x0213_1_surrogate_table[i][1] == c1 && x0213_1_surrogate_table[i][2] == c2) {
+                   val = x0213_1_surrogate_table[i][0];
+                   *p2 = val >> 8;
+                   *p1 = val & 0xFF;
+                   return 0;
+               }
+           for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_2_surrogate_table; i++)
+               if (x0213_2_surrogate_table[i][1] == c1 && x0213_2_surrogate_table[i][2] == c2) {
+                   val = x0213_2_surrogate_table[i][0];
+                   *p2 = PREFIX_EUCG3 | (val >> 8);
+                   *p1 = val & 0xFF;
+                   return 0;
+               }
+       }
        *p2 = 0;
        *p1 = nkf_char_unicode_new(val);
     }
@@ -1870,7 +2116,8 @@ nkf_char w16e_conv(nkf_char val, nkf_char *p2, nkf_char *p1)
 }
 #endif
 
-nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
+static nkf_char
+e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
 {
     if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K || c2 == SS2){
        if (iso2022jp_f && !x0201_f) {
@@ -1881,9 +2128,9 @@ nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
        }
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     }else if (c2 == 0x8f){
-        if (c0 == 0){
-            return -1;
-        }
+       if (c0 == 0){
+           return -1;
+       }
        if (!cp51932_f && !x0213_f && 0xF5 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xFE && 0xA1 <= c0 && c0 <= 0xFE) {
            /* encoding is eucJP-ms, so invert to Unicode Private User Area */
            c1 = nkf_char_unicode_new((c1 - 0xF5) * 94 + c0 - 0xA1 + 0xE3AC);
@@ -1903,10 +2150,10 @@ nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
                }
            }
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
-        }
+       }
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
     } else if ((c2 == EOF) || (c2 == 0) || c2 < SP || c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
-        /* NOP */
+       /* NOP */
     } else {
        if (!cp51932_f && ms_ucs_map_f && 0xF5 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xFE && 0xA1 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xFE) {
            /* encoding is eucJP-ms, so invert to Unicode Private User Area */
@@ -1927,13 +2174,14 @@ nkf_char e_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
                }
            }
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
-        }
+       }
     }
     (*oconv)(c2, c1);
     return 0;
 }
 
-nkf_char s_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
+static nkf_char
+s_iconv(ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c0)
 {
     if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K || (0xA1 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xDF)) {
        if (iso2022jp_f && !x0201_f) {
@@ -1942,21 +2190,46 @@ nkf_char s_iconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
            c1 &= 0x7f;
        }
     } else if ((c2 == EOF) || (c2 == 0) || c2 < SP) {
-        /* NOP */
+       /* NOP */
     } else if (!x0213_f && 0xF0 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xF9 && 0x40 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xFC) {
        /* CP932 UDC */
        if(c1 == 0x7F) return 0;
        c1 = nkf_char_unicode_new((c2 - 0xF0) * 188 + (c1 - 0x40 - (0x7E < c1)) + 0xE000);
        c2 = 0;
     } else {
-        nkf_char ret = s2e_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1);
-        if (ret) return ret;
+       nkf_char ret = s2e_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1);
+       if (ret) return ret;
     }
     (*oconv)(c2, c1);
     return 0;
 }
 
-nkf_char w_iconv(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3)
+static int
+x0213_wait_combining_p(nkf_char wc)
+{
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_combining_table; i++) {
+       if (x0213_combining_table[i][1] == wc) {
+           return TRUE;
+       }
+    }
+    return FALSE;
+}
+
+static int
+x0213_combining_p(nkf_char wc)
+{
+    int i;
+    for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_combining_chars; i++) {
+       if (x0213_combining_chars[i] == wc) {
+           return TRUE;
+       }
+    }
+    return FALSE;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+w_iconv(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3)
 {
     nkf_char ret = 0, c4 = 0;
     static const char w_iconv_utf8_1st_byte[] =
@@ -1977,7 +2250,7 @@ nkf_char w_iconv(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3)
     } else if ((c1 & 0xC0) == 0x80) { /* 0x80-0xbf : trail byte */
        return 0;
     } else{
-       switch (w_iconv_utf8_1st_byte[c1 - 0xC0]) {
+       switch (w_iconv_utf8_1st_byte[c1 - 0xC0]) {
        case 21:
            if (c2 < 0x80 || 0xBF < c2) return 0;
            break;
@@ -2022,16 +2295,32 @@ nkf_char w_iconv(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3)
        c2 = nkf_char_unicode_new(nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c1, c2, c3, c4));
        c1 = 0;
     } else {
+       if (x0213_f && x0213_wait_combining_p(nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c1, c2, c3, c4)))
+           return -3;
        ret = w2e_conv(c1, c2, c3, &c1, &c2);
     }
     if (ret == 0){
-        (*oconv)(c1, c2);
+       (*oconv)(c1, c2);
+    }
+    return ret;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+w_iconv_nocombine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3)
+{
+    /* continue from the line below 'return -3;' in w_iconv() */
+    nkf_char ret = w2e_conv(c1, c2, c3, &c1, &c2);
+    if (ret == 0){
+       (*oconv)(c1, c2);
     }
     return ret;
 }
 
 #define NKF_ICONV_INVALID_CODE_RANGE -13
-static size_t unicode_iconv(nkf_char wc)
+#define NKF_ICONV_WAIT_COMBINING_CHAR -14
+#define NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED -15
+static size_t
+unicode_iconv(nkf_char wc, int nocombine)
 {
     nkf_char c1, c2;
     int ret = 0;
@@ -2043,6 +2332,8 @@ static size_t unicode_iconv(nkf_char wc)
        /* unpaired surrogate */
        return NKF_ICONV_INVALID_CODE_RANGE;
     }else if (wc < 0xFFFF) {
+       if (!nocombine && x0213_f && x0213_wait_combining_p(wc))
+           return NKF_ICONV_WAIT_COMBINING_CHAR;
        ret = w16e_conv(wc, &c2, &c1);
        if (ret) return ret;
     }else if (wc < 0x10FFFF) {
@@ -2055,10 +2346,52 @@ static size_t unicode_iconv(nkf_char wc)
     return 0;
 }
 
-#define NKF_ICONV_NEED_ONE_MORE_BYTE -1
-#define NKF_ICONV_NEED_TWO_MORE_BYTES -2
-#define UTF16_TO_UTF32(lead, trail) (((lead) << 10) + (trail) - NKF_INT32_C(0x35FDC00))
-size_t nkf_iconv_utf_16(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
+static nkf_char
+unicode_iconv_combine(nkf_char wc, nkf_char wc2)
+{
+    nkf_char c1, c2;
+    int i;
+
+    if (wc2 < 0x80) {
+       return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+    }else if ((wc2>>11) == 27) {
+       /* unpaired surrogate */
+       return NKF_ICONV_INVALID_CODE_RANGE;
+    }else if (wc2 < 0xFFFF) {
+       if (!x0213_combining_p(wc2))
+           return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+       for (i = 0; i < sizeof_x0213_combining_table; i++) {
+           if (x0213_combining_table[i][1] == wc &&
+               x0213_combining_table[i][2] == wc2) {
+               c2 = x0213_combining_table[i][0] >> 8;
+               c1 = x0213_combining_table[i][0] & 0x7f;
+               (*oconv)(c2, c1);
+               return 0;
+           }
+       }
+    }else if (wc2 < 0x10FFFF) {
+       return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+    } else {
+       return NKF_ICONV_INVALID_CODE_RANGE;
+    }
+    return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+w_iconv_combine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4, nkf_char c5, nkf_char c6)
+{
+    nkf_char wc, wc2;
+    wc = nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c1, c2, c3, 0);
+    wc2 = nkf_utf8_to_unicode(c4, c5, c6, 0);
+    if (wc2 < 0)
+       return wc2;
+    return unicode_iconv_combine(wc, wc2);
+}
+
+#define NKF_ICONV_NEED_ONE_MORE_BYTE (size_t)-1
+#define NKF_ICONV_NEED_TWO_MORE_BYTES (size_t)-2
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_utf_16(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
 {
     nkf_char wc;
 
@@ -2085,27 +2418,62 @@ size_t nkf_iconv_utf_16(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
        }
     }
 
-    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc);
+    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc, FALSE);
 }
 
-nkf_char w_iconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_utf_16_combine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
 {
-    return 0;
+    nkf_char wc, wc2;
+
+    if (input_endian == ENDIAN_BIG) {
+       if (0xD8 <= c3 && c3 <= 0xDB) {
+           return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+       } else {
+           wc = c1 << 8 | c2;
+           wc2 = c3 << 8 | c4;
+       }
+    } else {
+       if (0xD8 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xDB) {
+           return NKF_ICONV_NOT_COMBINED;
+       } else {
+           wc = c2 << 8 | c1;
+           wc2 = c4 << 8 | c3;
+       }
+    }
+
+    return unicode_iconv_combine(wc, wc2);
 }
 
-nkf_char w_iconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0)
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_utf_16_nocombine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2)
 {
-    return 0;
+    nkf_char wc;
+    if (input_endian == ENDIAN_BIG)
+       wc = c1 << 8 | c2;
+    else
+       wc = c2 << 8 | c1;
+    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc, TRUE);
 }
 
-size_t nkf_iconv_utf_32(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
+static nkf_char
+w_iconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c0)
 {
-    nkf_char wc;
+    (*oconv)(c2, c1);
+    return 16; /* different from w_iconv32 */
+}
 
-    if (c1 == EOF) {
-       (*oconv)(EOF, 0);
-       return 0;
-    }
+static nkf_char
+w_iconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c0)
+{
+    (*oconv)(c2, c1);
+    return 32; /* different from w_iconv16 */
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+utf32_to_nkf_char(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
+{
+    nkf_char wc;
 
     switch(input_endian){
     case ENDIAN_BIG:
@@ -2123,21 +2491,62 @@ size_t nkf_iconv_utf_32(int c1, int c2, int c3, int c4)
     default:
        return NKF_ICONV_INVALID_CODE_RANGE;
     }
+    return wc;
+}
+
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_utf_32(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
+{
+    nkf_char wc;
+
+    if (c1 == EOF) {
+       (*oconv)(EOF, 0);
+       return 0;
+    }
+
+    wc = utf32_to_nkf_char(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+    if (wc < 0)
+       return wc;
+
+    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc, FALSE);
+}
+
+static nkf_char
+nkf_iconv_utf_32_combine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4, nkf_char c5, nkf_char c6, nkf_char c7, nkf_char c8)
+{
+    nkf_char wc, wc2;
+
+    wc = utf32_to_nkf_char(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+    if (wc < 0)
+       return wc;
+    wc2 = utf32_to_nkf_char(c5, c6, c7, c8);
+    if (wc2 < 0)
+       return wc2;
+
+    return unicode_iconv_combine(wc, wc2);
+}
 
-    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc);
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_utf_32_nocombine(nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2, nkf_char c3, nkf_char c4)
+{
+    nkf_char wc;
+
+    wc = utf32_to_nkf_char(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+    return (*unicode_iconv)(wc, TRUE);
 }
 #endif
 
 #define output_ascii_escape_sequence(mode) do { \
-    if (output_mode != ASCII && output_mode != ISO_8859_1) { \
-       (*o_putc)(ESC); \
-       (*o_putc)('('); \
-       (*o_putc)(ascii_intro); \
-       output_mode = mode; \
-    } \
-} while (0)
-
-void output_escape_sequence(int mode)
+           if (output_mode != ASCII && output_mode != ISO_8859_1) { \
+                   (*o_putc)(ESC); \
+                   (*o_putc)('('); \
+                   (*o_putc)(ascii_intro); \
+                   output_mode = mode; \
+           } \
+    } while (0)
+
+static void
+output_escape_sequence(int mode)
 {
     if (output_mode == mode)
        return;
@@ -2168,23 +2577,24 @@ void output_escape_sequence(int mode)
        (*o_putc)('$');
        (*o_putc)('(');
        (*o_putc)('Q');
-       break;
+       break;
     case JIS_X_0213_2:
        (*o_putc)(ESC);
        (*o_putc)('$');
        (*o_putc)('(');
        (*o_putc)('P');
-       break;
+       break;
     }
     output_mode = mode;
 }
 
-void j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
     if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
-        w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
-        if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
+       w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
+       if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
            c2 = c1 & VALUE_MASK;
            if (ms_ucs_map_f && 0xE000 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xE757) {
                /* CP5022x UDC */
@@ -2195,16 +2605,16 @@ void j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                if (encode_fallback) (*encode_fallback)(c1);
                return;
            }
-        }
+       }
     }
 #endif
     if (c2 == 0) {
        output_ascii_escape_sequence(ASCII);
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     }
     else if (c2 == EOF) {
        output_ascii_escape_sequence(ASCII);
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
     }
     else if (c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
        output_ascii_escape_sequence(ISO_8859_1);
@@ -2212,28 +2622,29 @@ void j_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     }
     else if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
        output_escape_sequence(JIS_X_0201_1976_K);
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     } else if (is_eucg3(c2)){
        output_escape_sequence(x0213_f ? JIS_X_0213_2 : JIS_X_0212);
-        (*o_putc)(c2 & 0x7f);
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c2 & 0x7f);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
 #endif
     } else {
        if(ms_ucs_map_f
           ? c2<0x20 || 0x92<c2 || c1<0x20 || 0x7e<c1
           : c2<0x20 || 0x7e<c2 || c1<0x20 || 0x7e<c1) return;
        output_escape_sequence(x0213_f ? JIS_X_0213_1 : JIS_X_0208);
-        (*o_putc)(c2);
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c2);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     }
 }
 
-void e_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+e_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
-        w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
-        if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
+       w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
+       if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
            c2 = c1 & VALUE_MASK;
            if (x0212_f && 0xE000 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xE757) {
                /* eucJP-ms UDC */
@@ -2254,62 +2665,63 @@ void e_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                if (encode_fallback) (*encode_fallback)(c1);
                return;
            }
-        }
+       }
     }
 
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
     } else if (c2 == 0) {
        output_mode = ASCII;
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     } else if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
        output_mode = EUC_JP;
-        (*o_putc)(SS2); (*o_putc)(c1|0x80);
+       (*o_putc)(SS2); (*o_putc)(c1|0x80);
     } else if (c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
        output_mode = ISO_8859_1;
-        (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
+       (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     } else if (is_eucg3(c2)){
        output_mode = EUC_JP;
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
-        if (!cp932inv_f){
-            nkf_char s2, s1;
-            if (e2s_conv(c2, c1, &s2, &s1) == 0){
-                s2e_conv(s2, s1, &c2, &c1);
-            }
-        }
-#endif
-        if (c2 == 0) {
+       if (!cp932inv_f){
+           nkf_char s2, s1;
+           if (e2s_conv(c2, c1, &s2, &s1) == 0){
+               s2e_conv(s2, s1, &c2, &c1);
+           }
+       }
+#endif
+       if (c2 == 0) {
            output_mode = ASCII;
            (*o_putc)(c1);
        }else if (is_eucg3(c2)){
-            if (x0212_f){
-                (*o_putc)(0x8f);
-                (*o_putc)((c2 & 0x7f) | 0x080);
-                (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
-            }
-        }else{
-            (*o_putc)((c2 & 0x7f) | 0x080);
-            (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
-        }
+           if (x0212_f){
+               (*o_putc)(0x8f);
+               (*o_putc)((c2 & 0x7f) | 0x080);
+               (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
+           }
+       }else{
+           (*o_putc)((c2 & 0x7f) | 0x080);
+           (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
+       }
 #endif
     } else {
-        if (!nkf_isgraph(c1) || !nkf_isgraph(c2)) {
-            set_iconv(FALSE, 0);
-            return; /* too late to rescue this char */
-        }
+       if (!nkf_isgraph(c1) || !nkf_isgraph(c2)) {
+           set_iconv(FALSE, 0);
+           return; /* too late to rescue this char */
+       }
        output_mode = EUC_JP;
-        (*o_putc)(c2 | 0x080);
-        (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
+       (*o_putc)(c2 | 0x080);
+       (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
     }
 }
 
-void s_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+s_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
     if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
-        w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
-        if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
+       w16e_conv(c1, &c2, &c1);
+       if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
            c2 = c1 & VALUE_MASK;
            if (!x0213_f && 0xE000 <= c2 && c2 <= 0xE757) {
                /* CP932 UDC */
@@ -2328,259 +2740,303 @@ void s_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     }
 #endif
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
-        return;
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       return;
     } else if (c2 == 0) {
        output_mode = ASCII;
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     } else if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
        output_mode = SHIFT_JIS;
-        (*o_putc)(c1|0x80);
+       (*o_putc)(c1|0x80);
     } else if (c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
        output_mode = ISO_8859_1;
-        (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
+       (*o_putc)(c1 | 0x080);
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
     } else if (is_eucg3(c2)){
        output_mode = SHIFT_JIS;
-        if (e2s_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1) == 0){
-            (*o_putc)(c2);
-            (*o_putc)(c1);
-        }
+       if (e2s_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1) == 0){
+           (*o_putc)(c2);
+           (*o_putc)(c1);
+       }
 #endif
     } else {
-        if (!nkf_isprint(c1) || !nkf_isprint(c2)) {
-            set_iconv(FALSE, 0);
-            return; /* too late to rescue this char */
-        }
+       if (!nkf_isprint(c1) || !nkf_isprint(c2)) {
+           set_iconv(FALSE, 0);
+           return; /* too late to rescue this char */
+       }
        output_mode = SHIFT_JIS;
-        e2s_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1);
+       e2s_conv(c2, c1, &c2, &c1);
 
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
-        if (cp932inv_f
-            && CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN <= c2 && c2 <= CP932INV_TABLE_END){
-            nkf_char c = cp932inv[c2 - CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
-            if (c){
-                c2 = c >> 8;
-                c1 = c & 0xff;
-            }
-        }
+       if (cp932inv_f
+           && CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN <= c2 && c2 <= CP932INV_TABLE_END){
+           nkf_char c = cp932inv[c2 - CP932INV_TABLE_BEGIN][c1 - 0x40];
+           if (c){
+               c2 = c >> 8;
+               c1 = c & 0xff;
+           }
+       }
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
 
-        (*o_putc)(c2);
+       (*o_putc)(c2);
        if (prefix_table[(unsigned char)c1]){
-            (*o_putc)(prefix_table[(unsigned char)c1]);
+           (*o_putc)(prefix_table[(unsigned char)c1]);
        }
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     }
 }
 
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
-void w_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+#define OUTPUT_UTF8(val) do { \
+       nkf_unicode_to_utf8(val, &c1, &c2, &c3, &c4); \
+       (*o_putc)(c1); \
+       if (c2) (*o_putc)(c2); \
+       if (c3) (*o_putc)(c3); \
+       if (c4) (*o_putc)(c4); \
+    } while (0)
+
+static void
+w_oconv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
-    int c3, c4;
-    nkf_char val;
+    nkf_char c3, c4;
+    nkf_char val, val2;
 
     if (output_bom_f) {
        output_bom_f = FALSE;
-       (*o_putc)('\357');
+       (*o_putc)('\357');
        (*o_putc)('\273');
        (*o_putc)('\277');
     }
 
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
-        return;
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       return;
     }
 
     if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)){
        val = c1 & VALUE_MASK;
-       nkf_unicode_to_utf8(val, &c1, &c2, &c3, &c4);
-       (*o_putc)(c1);
-       if (c2) (*o_putc)(c2);
-       if (c3) (*o_putc)(c3);
-       if (c4) (*o_putc)(c4);
+       OUTPUT_UTF8(val);
        return;
     }
 
     if (c2 == 0) {
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       (*o_putc)(c1);
     } else {
        val = e2w_conv(c2, c1);
-        if (val){
-            nkf_unicode_to_utf8(val, &c1, &c2, &c3, &c4);
-            (*o_putc)(c1);
-            if (c2) (*o_putc)(c2);
-            if (c3) (*o_putc)(c3);
-            if (c4) (*o_putc)(c4);
-        }
+       if (val){
+           val2 = e2w_combining(val, c2, c1);
+           if (val2)
+               OUTPUT_UTF8(val2);
+           OUTPUT_UTF8(val);
+       }
     }
 }
 
-void w_oconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+#define OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(c1, c2) do { \
+       if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){ \
+           (*o_putc)(c1); \
+           (*o_putc)(c2); \
+       }else{ \
+           (*o_putc)(c2); \
+           (*o_putc)(c1); \
+       } \
+    } while (0)
+
+#define OUTPUT_UTF16(val) do { \
+       if (nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(val)) { \
+           c2 = (val >> 8) & 0xff; \
+           c1 = val & 0xff; \
+           OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(c1, c2); \
+       } else { \
+           val &= VALUE_MASK; \
+           if (val <= UNICODE_MAX) { \
+               c2 = (val >> 10) + NKF_INT32_C(0xD7C0);   /* high surrogate */ \
+               c1 = (val & 0x3FF) + NKF_INT32_C(0xDC00); /* low surrogate */ \
+               OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(c2 & 0xff, (c2 >> 8) & 0xff); \
+               OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(c1 & 0xff, (c1 >> 8) & 0xff); \
+           } \
+       } \
+    } while (0)
+
+static void
+w_oconv16(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (output_bom_f) {
        output_bom_f = FALSE;
-        if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
-            (*o_putc)(0xFF);
-            (*o_putc)(0xFE);
-        }else{
-            (*o_putc)(0xFE);
-            (*o_putc)(0xFF);
-        }
+       OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(0xFF, 0xFE);
     }
 
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
-        return;
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       return;
     }
 
     if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)) {
-        if (nkf_char_unicode_bmp_p(c1)) {
-            c2 = (c1 >> 8) & 0xff;
-            c1 &= 0xff;
-        } else {
-            c1 &= VALUE_MASK;
-            if (c1 <= UNICODE_MAX) {
-                c2 = (c1 >> 10) + NKF_INT32_C(0xD7C0);   /* high surrogate */
-                c1 = (c1 & 0x3FF) + NKF_INT32_C(0xDC00); /* low surrogate */
-                if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
-                    (*o_putc)(c2 & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)((c2 >> 8) & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)(c1 & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)((c1 >> 8) & 0xff);
-                }else{
-                    (*o_putc)((c2 >> 8) & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)(c2 & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)((c1 >> 8) & 0xff);
-                    (*o_putc)(c1 & 0xff);
-                }
-            }
-            return;
-        }
+       OUTPUT_UTF16(c1);
     } else if (c2) {
-        nkf_char val = e2w_conv(c2, c1);
-        c2 = (val >> 8) & 0xff;
-        c1 = val & 0xff;
+       nkf_char val, val2;
+       val = e2w_conv(c2, c1);
        if (!val) return;
-    }
-    if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
-        (*o_putc)(c2);
-    }else{
-        (*o_putc)(c2);
-        (*o_putc)(c1);
+       val2 = e2w_combining(val, c2, c1);
+       if (val2)
+           OUTPUT_UTF16(val2);
+       OUTPUT_UTF16(val);
+    } else {
+       OUTPUT_UTF16_BYTES(c1, c2);
     }
 }
 
-void w_oconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+#define OUTPUT_UTF32(c) do { \
+       if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){ \
+           (*o_putc)( (c)        & 0xFF); \
+           (*o_putc)(((c) >>  8) & 0xFF); \
+           (*o_putc)(((c) >> 16) & 0xFF); \
+           (*o_putc)(0); \
+       }else{ \
+           (*o_putc)(0); \
+           (*o_putc)(((c) >> 16) & 0xFF); \
+           (*o_putc)(((c) >>  8) & 0xFF); \
+           (*o_putc)( (c)        & 0xFF); \
+       } \
+    } while (0)
+
+static void
+w_oconv32(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (output_bom_f) {
        output_bom_f = FALSE;
-        if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
-            (*o_putc)(0xFF);
-            (*o_putc)(0xFE);
-            (*o_putc)(0);
-            (*o_putc)(0);
-        }else{
-            (*o_putc)(0);
-            (*o_putc)(0);
-            (*o_putc)(0xFE);
-            (*o_putc)(0xFF);
-        }
+       if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
+           (*o_putc)(0xFF);
+           (*o_putc)(0xFE);
+           (*o_putc)(0);
+           (*o_putc)(0);
+       }else{
+           (*o_putc)(0);
+           (*o_putc)(0);
+           (*o_putc)(0xFE);
+           (*o_putc)(0xFF);
+       }
     }
 
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_putc)(EOF);
-        return;
+       (*o_putc)(EOF);
+       return;
     }
 
     if (c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
-        c1 |= 0x80;
+       c1 |= 0x80;
     } else if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)) {
        c1 &= VALUE_MASK;
     } else if (c2) {
-        c1 = e2w_conv(c2, c1);
-       if (!c1) return;
-    }
-    if (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE){
-        (*o_putc)( c1        & 0xFF);
-        (*o_putc)((c1 >>  8) & 0xFF);
-        (*o_putc)((c1 >> 16) & 0xFF);
-       (*o_putc)(0);
-    }else{
-       (*o_putc)(0);
-        (*o_putc)((c1 >> 16) & 0xFF);
-        (*o_putc)((c1 >>  8) & 0xFF);
-        (*o_putc)( c1        & 0xFF);
+       nkf_char val, val2;
+       val = e2w_conv(c2, c1);
+       if (!val) return;
+       val2 = e2w_combining(val, c2, c1);
+       if (val2)
+           OUTPUT_UTF32(val2);
+       c1 = val;
     }
+    OUTPUT_UTF32(c1);
 }
 #endif
 
-#define SCORE_L2       (1)                   /* \e$BBh\e(B2\e$B?e=`4A;z\e(B */
-#define SCORE_KANA     (SCORE_L2 << 1)       /* \e$B$$$o$f$kH>3Q%+%J\e(B */
-#define SCORE_DEPEND   (SCORE_KANA << 1)     /* \e$B5!<o0MB8J8;z\e(B */
-#define SCORE_CP932    (SCORE_DEPEND << 1)   /* CP932 \e$B$K$h$kFI$_49$(\e(B (IBM extended characters) */
+#define SCORE_L2       (1)                   /* Kanji Level 2 */
+#define SCORE_KANA     (SCORE_L2 << 1)       /* Halfwidth Katakana */
+#define SCORE_DEPEND   (SCORE_KANA << 1)     /* MD Characters */
+#define SCORE_CP932    (SCORE_DEPEND << 1)   /* IBM extended characters */
 #define SCORE_X0212    (SCORE_CP932 << 1)    /* JIS X 0212 */
-#define SCORE_NO_EXIST (SCORE_X0212 << 1)    /* \e$BB8:_$7$J$$J8;z\e(B */
-#define SCORE_iMIME    (SCORE_NO_EXIST << 1) /* MIME \e$B$K$h$k;XDj\e(B */
-#define SCORE_ERROR    (SCORE_iMIME << 1) /* \e$B%(%i!<\e(B */
+#define SCORE_X0213    (SCORE_X0212 << 1)    /* JIS X 0213 */
+#define SCORE_NO_EXIST (SCORE_X0213 << 1)    /* Undefined Characters */
+#define SCORE_iMIME    (SCORE_NO_EXIST << 1) /* MIME selected */
+#define SCORE_ERROR    (SCORE_iMIME << 1) /* Error */
 
 #define SCORE_INIT (SCORE_iMIME)
 
-static const char score_table_A0[] = {
+static const nkf_char score_table_A0[] = {
     0, 0, 0, 0,
     0, 0, 0, 0,
     0, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND,
-    SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_NO_EXIST,
+    SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_X0213,
 };
 
-static const char score_table_F0[] = {
+static const nkf_char score_table_F0[] = {
     SCORE_L2, SCORE_L2, SCORE_L2, SCORE_L2,
-    SCORE_L2, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_NO_EXIST, SCORE_NO_EXIST,
+    SCORE_L2, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
     SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_DEPEND, SCORE_CP932, SCORE_CP932,
-    SCORE_CP932, SCORE_NO_EXIST, SCORE_NO_EXIST, SCORE_ERROR,
+    SCORE_CP932, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_ERROR,
+};
+
+static const nkf_char score_table_8FA0[] = {
+    0, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0213,
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
+};
+
+static const nkf_char score_table_8FE0[] = {
+    SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
+};
+
+static const nkf_char score_table_8FF0[] = {
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0212,
+    SCORE_X0212, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
+    SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213, SCORE_X0213,
 };
 
-void set_code_score(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char score)
+static void
+set_code_score(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char score)
 {
     if (ptr){
-        ptr->score |= score;
+       ptr->score |= score;
     }
 }
 
-void clr_code_score(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char score)
+static void
+clr_code_score(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char score)
 {
     if (ptr){
-        ptr->score &= ~score;
+       ptr->score &= ~score;
     }
 }
 
-void code_score(struct input_code *ptr)
+static void
+code_score(struct input_code *ptr)
 {
     nkf_char c2 = ptr->buf[0];
-#ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
     nkf_char c1 = ptr->buf[1];
-#endif
     if (c2 < 0){
-        set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_ERROR);
+       set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_ERROR);
     }else if (c2 == SS2){
-        set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_KANA);
+       set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_KANA);
     }else if (c2 == 0x8f){
-        set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_X0212);
+       if ((c1 & 0x70) == 0x20){
+           set_code_score(ptr, score_table_8FA0[c1 & 0x0f]);
+       }else if ((c1 & 0x70) == 0x60){
+           set_code_score(ptr, score_table_8FE0[c1 & 0x0f]);
+       }else if ((c1 & 0x70) == 0x70){
+           set_code_score(ptr, score_table_8FF0[c1 & 0x0f]);
+       }else{
+           set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_X0212);
+       }
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
     }else if (!e2w_conv(c2, c1)){
-        set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_NO_EXIST);
+       set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_NO_EXIST);
 #endif
     }else if ((c2 & 0x70) == 0x20){
-        set_code_score(ptr, score_table_A0[c2 & 0x0f]);
+       set_code_score(ptr, score_table_A0[c2 & 0x0f]);
     }else if ((c2 & 0x70) == 0x70){
-        set_code_score(ptr, score_table_F0[c2 & 0x0f]);
+       set_code_score(ptr, score_table_F0[c2 & 0x0f]);
     }else if ((c2 & 0x70) >= 0x50){
-        set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_L2);
+       set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_L2);
     }
 }
 
-void status_disable(struct input_code *ptr)
+static void
+status_disable(struct input_code *ptr)
 {
     ptr->stat = -1;
     ptr->buf[0] = -1;
@@ -2588,83 +3044,89 @@ void status_disable(struct input_code *ptr)
     if (iconv == ptr->iconv_func) set_iconv(FALSE, 0);
 }
 
-void status_push_ch(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
+static void
+status_push_ch(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
 {
     ptr->buf[ptr->index++] = c;
 }
 
-void status_clear(struct input_code *ptr)
+static void
+status_clear(struct input_code *ptr)
 {
     ptr->stat = 0;
     ptr->index = 0;
 }
 
-void status_reset(struct input_code *ptr)
+static void
+status_reset(struct input_code *ptr)
 {
     status_clear(ptr);
     ptr->score = SCORE_INIT;
 }
 
-void status_reinit(struct input_code *ptr)
+static void
+status_reinit(struct input_code *ptr)
 {
     status_reset(ptr);
     ptr->_file_stat = 0;
 }
 
-void status_check(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
+static void
+status_check(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
 {
     if (c <= DEL && estab_f){
-        status_reset(ptr);
+       status_reset(ptr);
     }
 }
 
-void s_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
+static void
+s_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
 {
     switch(ptr->stat){
-      case -1:
-          status_check(ptr, c);
-          break;
-      case 0:
-          if (c <= DEL){
-              break;
-          }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
-              break;
-          }else if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xdf){
-              status_push_ch(ptr, SS2);
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-              code_score(ptr);
-              status_clear(ptr);
-          }else if ((0x81 <= c && c < 0xa0) || (0xe0 <= c && c <= 0xea)){
-              ptr->stat = 1;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-          }else if (0xed <= c && c <= 0xee){
-              ptr->stat = 3;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+    case -1:
+       status_check(ptr, c);
+       break;
+    case 0:
+       if (c <= DEL){
+           break;
+       }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
+           break;
+       }else if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xdf){
+           status_push_ch(ptr, SS2);
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+           code_score(ptr);
+           status_clear(ptr);
+       }else if ((0x81 <= c && c < 0xa0) || (0xe0 <= c && c <= 0xea)){
+           ptr->stat = 1;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (0xed <= c && c <= 0xee){
+           ptr->stat = 3;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
-          }else if (is_ibmext_in_sjis(c)){
-              ptr->stat = 2;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (is_ibmext_in_sjis(c)){
+           ptr->stat = 2;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
-          }else if (0xf0 <= c && c <= 0xfc){
-              ptr->stat = 1;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (0xf0 <= c && c <= 0xfc){
+           ptr->stat = 1;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
-      case 1:
-          if ((0x40 <= c && c <= 0x7e) || (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xfc)){
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-              s2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
-              code_score(ptr);
-              status_clear(ptr);
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
-      case 2:
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
+    case 1:
+       if ((0x40 <= c && c <= 0x7e) || (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xfc)){
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+           s2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
+           code_score(ptr);
+           status_clear(ptr);
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
+    case 2:
 #ifdef SHIFTJIS_CP932
        if ((0x40 <= c && c <= 0x7e) || (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xfc)) {
            status_push_ch(ptr, c);
@@ -2676,202 +3138,238 @@ void s_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
        }
 #endif /* SHIFTJIS_CP932 */
        status_disable(ptr);
-          break;
-      case 3:
-          if ((0x40 <= c && c <= 0x7e) || (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xfc)){
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-              s2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
+       break;
+    case 3:
+       if ((0x40 <= c && c <= 0x7e) || (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xfc)){
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+           s2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
            set_code_score(ptr, SCORE_CP932);
            status_clear(ptr);
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
     }
 }
 
-void e_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
+static void
+e_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
 {
     switch (ptr->stat){
-      case -1:
-          status_check(ptr, c);
-          break;
-      case 0:
-          if (c <= DEL){
-              break;
-          }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
-              break;
-          }else if (SS2 == c || (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe)){
-              ptr->stat = 1;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+    case -1:
+       status_check(ptr, c);
+       break;
+    case 0:
+       if (c <= DEL){
+           break;
+       }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
+           break;
+       }else if (SS2 == c || (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe)){
+           ptr->stat = 1;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
-          }else if (0x8f == c){
-              ptr->stat = 2;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (0x8f == c){
+           ptr->stat = 2;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
-      case 1:
-          if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe){
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-              code_score(ptr);
-              status_clear(ptr);
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
+    case 1:
+       if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe){
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+           code_score(ptr);
+           status_clear(ptr);
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
-      case 2:
-          if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe){
-              ptr->stat = 1;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
+    case 2:
+       if (0xa1 <= c && c <= 0xfe){
+           ptr->stat = 1;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
     }
 }
 
 #ifdef UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE
-void w_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
+static void
+w_status(struct input_code *ptr, nkf_char c)
 {
     switch (ptr->stat){
-      case -1:
-          status_check(ptr, c);
-          break;
-      case 0:
-          if (c <= DEL){
-              break;
-          }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
-              break;
-          }else if (0xc0 <= c && c <= 0xdf){
-              ptr->stat = 1;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-          }else if (0xe0 <= c && c <= 0xef){
-              ptr->stat = 2;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-          }else if (0xf0 <= c && c <= 0xf4){
-              ptr->stat = 3;
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
-      case 1:
-      case 2:
-          if (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xbf){
-              status_push_ch(ptr, c);
-              if (ptr->index > ptr->stat){
-                  int bom = (ptr->buf[0] == 0xef && ptr->buf[1] == 0xbb
-                             && ptr->buf[2] == 0xbf);
-                  w2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], ptr->buf[2],
-                           &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
-                  if (!bom){
-                      code_score(ptr);
-                  }
-                  status_clear(ptr);
-              }
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
-      case 3:
+    case -1:
+       status_check(ptr, c);
+       break;
+    case 0:
+       if (c <= DEL){
+           break;
+       }else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c)){
+           break;
+       }else if (0xc0 <= c && c <= 0xdf){
+           ptr->stat = 1;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (0xe0 <= c && c <= 0xef){
+           ptr->stat = 2;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else if (0xf0 <= c && c <= 0xf4){
+           ptr->stat = 3;
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
+    case 1:
+    case 2:
+       if (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xbf){
+           status_push_ch(ptr, c);
+           if (ptr->index > ptr->stat){
+               int bom = (ptr->buf[0] == 0xef && ptr->buf[1] == 0xbb
+                          && ptr->buf[2] == 0xbf);
+               w2e_conv(ptr->buf[0], ptr->buf[1], ptr->buf[2],
+                        &ptr->buf[0], &ptr->buf[1]);
+               if (!bom){
+                   code_score(ptr);
+               }
+               status_clear(ptr);
+           }
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
+    case 3:
        if (0x80 <= c && c <= 0xbf){
            if (ptr->index < ptr->stat){
                status_push_ch(ptr, c);
            } else {
-               status_clear(ptr);
+               status_clear(ptr);
            }
-          }else{
-              status_disable(ptr);
-          }
-          break;
+       }else{
+           status_disable(ptr);
+       }
+       break;
     }
 }
 #endif
 
-void code_status(nkf_char c)
+static void
+code_status(nkf_char c)
 {
     int action_flag = 1;
     struct input_code *result = 0;
     struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
     while (p->name){
-        if (!p->status_func) {
+       if (!p->status_func) {
            ++p;
            continue;
        }
-        if (!p->status_func)
+       if (!p->status_func)
            continue;
-        (p->status_func)(p, c);
-        if (p->stat > 0){
-            action_flag = 0;
-        }else if(p->stat == 0){
-            if (result){
-                action_flag = 0;
-            }else{
-                result = p;
-            }
-        }
-        ++p;
+       (p->status_func)(p, c);
+       if (p->stat > 0){
+           action_flag = 0;
+       }else if(p->stat == 0){
+           if (result){
+               action_flag = 0;
+           }else{
+               result = p;
+           }
+       }
+       ++p;
     }
 
     if (action_flag){
-        if (result && !estab_f){
-            set_iconv(TRUE, result->iconv_func);
-        }else if (c <= DEL){
-            struct input_code *ptr = input_code_list;
-            while (ptr->name){
-                status_reset(ptr);
-                ++ptr;
-            }
-        }
+       if (result && !estab_f){
+           set_iconv(TRUE, result->iconv_func);
+       }else if (c <= DEL){
+           struct input_code *ptr = input_code_list;
+           while (ptr->name){
+               status_reset(ptr);
+               ++ptr;
+           }
+       }
+    }
+}
+
+typedef struct {
+    nkf_buf_t *std_gc_buf;
+    nkf_char broken_state;
+    nkf_buf_t *broken_buf;
+    nkf_char mimeout_state;
+    nkf_buf_t *nfc_buf;
+} nkf_state_t;
+
+static nkf_state_t *nkf_state = NULL;
+
+#define STD_GC_BUFSIZE (256)
+
+static void
+nkf_state_init(void)
+{
+    if (nkf_state) {
+       nkf_buf_clear(nkf_state->std_gc_buf);
+       nkf_buf_clear(nkf_state->broken_buf);
+       nkf_buf_clear(nkf_state->nfc_buf);
+    }
+    else {
+       nkf_state = nkf_xmalloc(sizeof(nkf_state_t));
+       nkf_state->std_gc_buf = nkf_buf_new(STD_GC_BUFSIZE);
+       nkf_state->broken_buf = nkf_buf_new(3);
+       nkf_state->nfc_buf = nkf_buf_new(9);
     }
+    nkf_state->broken_state = 0;
+    nkf_state->mimeout_state = 0;
 }
 
 #ifndef WIN32DLL
-nkf_char std_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+std_getc(FILE *f)
 {
-    if (std_gc_ndx){
-        return std_gc_buf[--std_gc_ndx];
+    if (!nkf_buf_empty_p(nkf_state->std_gc_buf)){
+       return nkf_buf_pop(nkf_state->std_gc_buf);
     }
     return getc(f);
 }
 #endif /*WIN32DLL*/
 
-nkf_char std_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+std_ungetc(nkf_char c, ARG_UNUSED FILE *f)
 {
-    if (std_gc_ndx == STD_GC_BUFSIZE){
-        return EOF;
-    }
-    std_gc_buf[std_gc_ndx++] = c;
+    nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->std_gc_buf, c);
     return c;
 }
 
 #ifndef WIN32DLL
-void std_putc(nkf_char c)
+static void
+std_putc(nkf_char c)
 {
     if(c!=EOF)
-      putchar(c);
+       putchar(c);
 }
 #endif /*WIN32DLL*/
 
-static unsigned char   hold_buf[HOLD_SIZE*2];
+static nkf_char   hold_buf[HOLD_SIZE*2];
 static int             hold_count = 0;
-nkf_char push_hold_buf(nkf_char c2)
+static nkf_char
+push_hold_buf(nkf_char c2)
 {
     if (hold_count >= HOLD_SIZE*2)
-        return (EOF);
-    hold_buf[hold_count++] = (unsigned char)c2;
+       return (EOF);
+    hold_buf[hold_count++] = c2;
     return ((hold_count >= HOLD_SIZE*2) ? EOF : hold_count);
 }
 
-static int h_conv(FILE *f, int c1, int c2)
+static int
+h_conv(FILE *f, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c2)
 {
-    int ret, c4, c3;
+    int ret;
     int hold_index;
-
+    int fromhold_count;
+    nkf_char c3, c4;
 
     /** it must NOT be in the kanji shifte sequence      */
     /** it must NOT be written in JIS7                   */
@@ -2882,29 +3380,29 @@ static int h_conv(FILE *f, int c1, int c2)
     push_hold_buf(c2);
 
     while ((c2 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
-        if (c2 == ESC){
+       if (c2 == ESC){
            (*i_ungetc)(c2,f);
-            break;
-        }
-        code_status(c2);
-        if (push_hold_buf(c2) == EOF || estab_f) {
-            break;
-        }
+           break;
+       }
+       code_status(c2);
+       if (push_hold_buf(c2) == EOF || estab_f) {
+           break;
+       }
     }
 
     if (!estab_f) {
-        struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
-        struct input_code *result = p;
-        if (c2 == EOF) {
-            code_status(c2);
-        }
-        while (p->name) {
-            if (p->status_func && p->score < result->score) {
-                result = p;
-            }
-            p++;
-        }
-        set_iconv(TRUE, result->iconv_func);
+       struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
+       struct input_code *result = p;
+       if (c2 == EOF) {
+           code_status(c2);
+       }
+       while (p->name) {
+           if (p->status_func && p->score < result->score) {
+               result = p;
+           }
+           p++;
+       }
+       set_iconv(TRUE, result->iconv_func);
     }
 
 
@@ -2920,58 +3418,150 @@ static int h_conv(FILE *f, int c1, int c2)
     ret = c2;
     hold_index = 0;
     while (hold_index < hold_count){
-        c1 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
-        if (c1 <= DEL){
-            (*iconv)(0, c1, 0);
-            continue;
-        }else if (iconv == s_iconv && 0xa1 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xdf){
-            (*iconv)(JIS_X_0201_1976_K, c1, 0);
-            continue;
-        }
-        if (hold_index < hold_count){
-            c2 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
-        }else{
-            c2 = (*i_getc)(f);
-            if (c2 == EOF){
-                c4 = EOF;
-                break;
-            }
-            code_status(c2);
-        }
-        c3 = 0;
-        switch ((*iconv)(c1, c2, 0)) {  /* can be EUC/SJIS/UTF-8 */
+       c1 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+       if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)) {
+           (*oconv)(0, c1);
+           continue;
+       }
+       else if (c1 <= DEL){
+           (*iconv)(0, c1, 0);
+           continue;
+       }else if (iconv == s_iconv && 0xa1 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xdf){
+           (*iconv)(JIS_X_0201_1976_K, c1, 0);
+           continue;
+       }
+       fromhold_count = 1;
+       if (hold_index < hold_count){
+           c2 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+           fromhold_count++;
+       }else{
+           c2 = (*i_getc)(f);
+           if (c2 == EOF){
+               c4 = EOF;
+               break;
+           }
+           code_status(c2);
+       }
+       c3 = 0;
+       switch ((*iconv)(c1, c2, 0)) {  /* can be EUC/SJIS/UTF-8 */
        case -2:
            /* 4 bytes UTF-8 */
-            if (hold_index < hold_count){
-                c3 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
-            } else if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+           if (hold_index < hold_count){
+               c3 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+           } else if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
                ret = EOF;
                break;
-           } else {
-                code_status(c3);
-               if (hold_index < hold_count){
-                   c4 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
-               } else if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                   c3 = ret = EOF;
-                   break;
+           }
+           code_status(c3);
+           if (hold_index < hold_count){
+               c4 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+           } else if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+               c3 = ret = EOF;
+               break;
+           }
+           code_status(c4);
+           (*iconv)(c1, c2, (c3<<8)|c4);
+           break;
+       case -3:
+           /* 4 bytes UTF-8 (check combining character) */
+           if (hold_index < hold_count){
+               c3 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+               fromhold_count++;
+           } else if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+               w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, 0);
+               break;
+           }
+           if (hold_index < hold_count){
+               c4 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+               fromhold_count++;
+           } else if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+               w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, 0);
+               if (fromhold_count <= 2)
+                   (*i_ungetc)(c3,f);
+               else
+                   hold_index--;
+               continue;
+           }
+           if (w_iconv_combine(c1, c2, 0, c3, c4, 0)) {
+               w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, 0);
+               if (fromhold_count <= 2) {
+                   (*i_ungetc)(c4,f);
+                   (*i_ungetc)(c3,f);
+               } else if (fromhold_count == 3) {
+                   (*i_ungetc)(c4,f);
+                   hold_index--;
                } else {
-                   code_status(c4);
-                   (*iconv)(c1, c2, (c3<<8)|c4);
+                   hold_index -= 2;
                }
-            }
+           }
            break;
        case -1:
            /* 3 bytes EUC or UTF-8 */
-            if (hold_index < hold_count){
-                c3 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
-            } else if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+           if (hold_index < hold_count){
+               c3 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+               fromhold_count++;
+           } else if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
                ret = EOF;
                break;
            } else {
-                code_status(c3);
-            }
-            (*iconv)(c1, c2, c3);
-            break;
+               code_status(c3);
+           }
+           if ((*iconv)(c1, c2, c3) == -3) {
+               /* 6 bytes UTF-8 (check combining character) */
+               nkf_char c5, c6;
+               if (hold_index < hold_count){
+                   c4 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+                   fromhold_count++;
+               } else if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                   w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, c3);
+                   continue;
+               }
+               if (hold_index < hold_count){
+                   c5 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+                   fromhold_count++;
+               } else if ((c5 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                   w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, c3);
+                   if (fromhold_count == 4)
+                       hold_index--;
+                   else
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c4,f);
+                   continue;
+               }
+               if (hold_index < hold_count){
+                   c6 = hold_buf[hold_index++];
+                   fromhold_count++;
+               } else if ((c6 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                   w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, c3);
+                   if (fromhold_count == 5) {
+                       hold_index -= 2;
+                   } else if (fromhold_count == 4) {
+                       hold_index--;
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c5,f);
+                   } else {
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c5,f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c4,f);
+                   }
+                   continue;
+               }
+               if (w_iconv_combine(c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6)) {
+                   w_iconv_nocombine(c1, c2, c3);
+                   if (fromhold_count == 6) {
+                       hold_index -= 3;
+                   } else if (fromhold_count == 5) {
+                       hold_index -= 2;
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c6,f);
+                   } else if (fromhold_count == 4) {
+                       hold_index--;
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c6,f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c5,f);
+                   } else {
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c6,f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c5,f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c4,f);
+                   }
+               }
+           }
+           break;
        }
        if (c3 == EOF) break;
     }
@@ -2981,9 +3571,11 @@ static int h_conv(FILE *f, int c1, int c2)
 /*
  * Check and Ignore BOM
  */
-void check_bom(FILE *f)
+static void
+check_bom(FILE *f)
 {
     int c2;
+    input_bom_f = FALSE;
     switch(c2 = (*i_getc)(f)){
     case 0x00:
        if((c2 = (*i_getc)(f)) == 0x00){
@@ -2993,6 +3585,7 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
                        set_iconv(TRUE, w_iconv32);
                    }
                    if (iconv == w_iconv32) {
+                       input_bom_f = TRUE;
                        input_endian = ENDIAN_BIG;
                        return;
                    }
@@ -3023,6 +3616,7 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
                    set_iconv(TRUE, w_iconv);
                }
                if (iconv == w_iconv) {
+                   input_bom_f = TRUE;
                    return;
                }
                (*i_ungetc)(0xBF,f);
@@ -3051,6 +3645,7 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
            }
            if (iconv == w_iconv16) {
                input_endian = ENDIAN_BIG;
+               input_bom_f = TRUE;
                return;
            }
            (*i_ungetc)(0xFF,f);
@@ -3066,6 +3661,7 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
                    }
                    if (iconv == w_iconv32) {
                        input_endian = ENDIAN_LITTLE;
+                       input_bom_f = TRUE;
                        return;
                    }
                    (*i_ungetc)(0x00,f);
@@ -3077,6 +3673,7 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
            }
            if (iconv == w_iconv16) {
                input_endian = ENDIAN_LITTLE;
+               input_bom_f = TRUE;
                return;
            }
            (*i_ungetc)(0xFE,f);
@@ -3089,73 +3686,55 @@ void check_bom(FILE *f)
     }
 }
 
-static struct {
-    int count;
-    nkf_char status;
-    nkf_char buf[3];
-} broken_state;
-
-static void init_broken_state(void)
-{
-    memset(&broken_state, 0, sizeof(broken_state));
-}
-
-static void push_broken_buf(c)
-{
-    broken_state.buf[broken_state.count++] = c;
-}
-
-static nkf_char pop_broken_buf(void)
-{
-    return broken_state.buf[--broken_state.count];
-}
-
-nkf_char broken_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+broken_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char c, c1;
 
-    if (broken_state.count > 0) {
-       return pop_broken_buf();
+    if (!nkf_buf_empty_p(nkf_state->broken_buf)) {
+       return nkf_buf_pop(nkf_state->broken_buf);
     }
     c = (*i_bgetc)(f);
-    if (c=='$' && broken_state.status != ESC
+    if (c=='$' && nkf_state->broken_state != ESC
        && (input_mode == ASCII || input_mode == JIS_X_0201_1976_K)) {
        c1= (*i_bgetc)(f);
-       broken_state.status = 0;
+       nkf_state->broken_state = 0;
        if (c1=='@'|| c1=='B') {
-           push_broken_buf(c1);
-           push_broken_buf(c);
+           nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->broken_buf, c1);
+           nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->broken_buf, c);
            return ESC;
        } else {
            (*i_bungetc)(c1,f);
            return c;
        }
-    } else if (c=='(' && broken_state.status != ESC
+    } else if (c=='(' && nkf_state->broken_state != ESC
               && (input_mode == JIS_X_0208 || input_mode == JIS_X_0201_1976_K)) {
        c1= (*i_bgetc)(f);
-       broken_state.status = 0;
+       nkf_state->broken_state = 0;
        if (c1=='J'|| c1=='B') {
-           push_broken_buf(c1);
-           push_broken_buf(c);
+           nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->broken_buf, c1);
+           nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->broken_buf, c);
            return ESC;
        } else {
            (*i_bungetc)(c1,f);
            return c;
        }
     } else {
-       broken_state.status = c;
+       nkf_state->broken_state = c;
        return c;
     }
 }
 
-nkf_char broken_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+broken_ungetc(nkf_char c, ARG_UNUSED FILE *f)
 {
-    if (broken_state.count < 2)
-       push_broken_buf(c);
+    if (nkf_buf_length(nkf_state->broken_buf) < 2)
+       nkf_buf_push(nkf_state->broken_buf, c);
     return c;
 }
 
-void eol_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+eol_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (guess_f && input_eol != EOF) {
        if (c2 == 0 && c1 == LF) {
@@ -3175,199 +3754,233 @@ void eol_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     else if (c2 != 0 || c1 != LF) (*o_eol_conv)(c2, c1);
 }
 
+static void
+put_newline(void (*func)(nkf_char))
+{
+    switch (eolmode_f ? eolmode_f : DEFAULT_NEWLINE) {
+      case CRLF:
+       (*func)(0x0D);
+       (*func)(0x0A);
+       break;
+      case CR:
+       (*func)(0x0D);
+       break;
+      case LF:
+       (*func)(0x0A);
+       break;
+    }
+}
+
+static void
+oconv_newline(void (*func)(nkf_char, nkf_char))
+{
+    switch (eolmode_f ? eolmode_f : DEFAULT_NEWLINE) {
+      case CRLF:
+       (*func)(0, 0x0D);
+       (*func)(0, 0x0A);
+       break;
+      case CR:
+       (*func)(0, 0x0D);
+       break;
+      case LF:
+       (*func)(0, 0x0A);
+       break;
+    }
+}
+
 /*
-  Return value of fold_conv()
+   Return value of fold_conv()
 
-       LF  add newline  and output char
-       CR  add newline  and output nothing
-       SP  space
-       0   skip
-       1   (or else) normal output
+   LF  add newline  and output char
+   CR  add newline  and output nothing
+   SP  space
+   0   skip
+   1   (or else) normal output
 
-  fold state in prev (previous character)
+   fold state in prev (previous character)
 
-      >0x80 Japanese (X0208/X0201)
-      <0x80 ASCII
-      LF    new line
-      SP    space
+   >0x80 Japanese (X0208/X0201)
+   <0x80 ASCII
+   LF    new line
+   SP    space
 
-  This fold algorthm does not preserve heading space in a line.
-  This is the main difference from fmt.
-*/
+   This fold algorthm does not preserve heading space in a line.
+   This is the main difference from fmt.
+ */
 
 #define char_size(c2,c1) (c2?2:1)
 
-void fold_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+fold_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     nkf_char prev0;
     nkf_char fold_state;
 
     if (c1== CR && !fold_preserve_f) {
-       fold_state=0;  /* ignore cr */
+       fold_state=0;  /* ignore cr */
     }else if (c1== LF&&f_prev==CR && fold_preserve_f) {
-        f_prev = LF;
-       fold_state=0;  /* ignore cr */
+       f_prev = LF;
+       fold_state=0;  /* ignore cr */
     } else if (c1== BS) {
-        if (f_line>0) f_line--;
-        fold_state =  1;
+       if (f_line>0) f_line--;
+       fold_state =  1;
     } else if (c2==EOF && f_line != 0) {    /* close open last line */
-            fold_state = LF;
+       fold_state = LF;
     } else if ((c1==LF && !fold_preserve_f)
-               || ((c1==CR||(c1==LF&&f_prev!=CR))
-                   && fold_preserve_f)) {
-        /* new line */
-        if (fold_preserve_f) {
-            f_prev = c1;
-            f_line = 0;
-            fold_state =  CR;
-       } else if ((f_prev == c1 && !fold_preserve_f)
-                   || (f_prev == LF && fold_preserve_f)
-                   ) {        /* duplicate newline */
-            if (f_line) {
-                f_line = 0;
-                fold_state =  LF;    /* output two newline */
-            } else {
-                f_line = 0;
-                fold_state =  1;
-            }
-        } else  {
-            if (f_prev&0x80) {     /* Japanese? */
-                f_prev = c1;
-                fold_state =  0;       /* ignore given single newline */
-            } else if (f_prev==SP) {
-                fold_state =  0;
-            } else {
-                f_prev = c1;
-                if (++f_line<=fold_len)
-                    fold_state =  SP;
-                else {
-                    f_line = 0;
-                    fold_state =  CR;        /* fold and output nothing */
-                }
-            }
-        }
+              || ((c1==CR||(c1==LF&&f_prev!=CR))
+                  && fold_preserve_f)) {
+       /* new line */
+       if (fold_preserve_f) {
+           f_prev = c1;
+           f_line = 0;
+           fold_state =  CR;
+       } else if ((f_prev == c1)
+                  || (f_prev == LF)
+                 ) {        /* duplicate newline */
+           if (f_line) {
+               f_line = 0;
+               fold_state =  LF;    /* output two newline */
+           } else {
+               f_line = 0;
+               fold_state =  1;
+           }
+       } else  {
+           if (f_prev&0x80) {     /* Japanese? */
+               f_prev = c1;
+               fold_state =  0;       /* ignore given single newline */
+           } else if (f_prev==SP) {
+               fold_state =  0;
+           } else {
+               f_prev = c1;
+               if (++f_line<=fold_len)
+                   fold_state =  SP;
+               else {
+                   f_line = 0;
+                   fold_state =  CR;        /* fold and output nothing */
+               }
+           }
+       }
     } else if (c1=='\f') {
-        f_prev = LF;
-        f_line = 0;
-        fold_state =  LF;            /* output newline and clear */
-    } else if ( (c2==0  && c1==SP)||
-               (c2==0  && c1==TAB)||
-               (c2=='!'&& c1=='!')) {
-        /* X0208 kankaku or ascii space */
-            if (f_prev == SP) {
-                fold_state = 0;         /* remove duplicate spaces */
-            } else {
-                f_prev = SP;
-                if (++f_line<=fold_len)
-                    fold_state = SP;         /* output ASCII space only */
-                else {
-                    f_prev = SP; f_line = 0;
-                    fold_state = CR;        /* fold and output nothing */
-                }
-            }
+       f_prev = LF;
+       f_line = 0;
+       fold_state =  LF;            /* output newline and clear */
+    } else if ((c2==0 && nkf_isblank(c1)) || (c2 == '!' && c1 == '!')) {
+       /* X0208 kankaku or ascii space */
+       if (f_prev == SP) {
+           fold_state = 0;         /* remove duplicate spaces */
+       } else {
+           f_prev = SP;
+           if (++f_line<=fold_len)
+               fold_state = SP;         /* output ASCII space only */
+           else {
+               f_prev = SP; f_line = 0;
+               fold_state = CR;        /* fold and output nothing */
+           }
+       }
     } else {
-        prev0 = f_prev; /* we still need this one... , but almost done */
-        f_prev = c1;
-        if (c2 || c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K)
-            f_prev |= 0x80;  /* this is Japanese */
-        f_line += char_size(c2,c1);
-        if (f_line<=fold_len) {   /* normal case */
-            fold_state = 1;
-        } else {
-            if (f_line>fold_len+fold_margin) { /* too many kinsoku suspension */
-                f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
-                fold_state =  LF;       /* We can't wait, do fold now */
-            } else if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
-            /* simple kinsoku rules  return 1 means no folding  */
-                if (c1==(0xde&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!+\e(B*/
-                else if (c1==(0xdf&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!,\e(B*/
-                else if (c1==(0xa4&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!#\e(B*/
-                else if (c1==(0xa3&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!$\e(B*/
-                else if (c1==(0xa1&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!W\e(B*/
-                else if (c1==(0xb0&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* - */
-                else if (SP<=c1 && c1<=(0xdf&0x7f)) {      /* X0201 */
+       prev0 = f_prev; /* we still need this one... , but almost done */
+       f_prev = c1;
+       if (c2 || c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K)
+           f_prev |= 0x80;  /* this is Japanese */
+       f_line += c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K ? 1: char_size(c2,c1);
+       if (f_line<=fold_len) {   /* normal case */
+           fold_state = 1;
+       } else {
+           if (f_line>fold_len+fold_margin) { /* too many kinsoku suspension */
+               f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
+               fold_state =  LF;       /* We can't wait, do fold now */
+           } else if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
+               /* simple kinsoku rules  return 1 means no folding  */
+               if (c1==(0xde&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!+\e(B*/
+               else if (c1==(0xdf&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!,\e(B*/
+               else if (c1==(0xa4&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!#\e(B*/
+               else if (c1==(0xa3&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!$\e(B*/
+               else if (c1==(0xa1&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!W\e(B*/
+               else if (c1==(0xb0&0x7f)) fold_state = 1; /* - */
+               else if (SP<=c1 && c1<=(0xdf&0x7f)) {      /* X0201 */
                    f_line = 1;
                    fold_state = LF;/* add one new f_line before this character */
                } else {
                    f_line = 1;
                    fold_state = LF;/* add one new f_line before this character */
                }
-            } else if (c2==0) {
-                /* kinsoku point in ASCII */
+           } else if (c2==0) {
+               /* kinsoku point in ASCII */
                if (  c1==')'||    /* { [ ( */
-                     c1==']'||
-                     c1=='}'||
-                     c1=='.'||
-                     c1==','||
-                     c1=='!'||
-                     c1=='?'||
-                     c1=='/'||
-                     c1==':'||
-                     c1==';') {
+                   c1==']'||
+                   c1=='}'||
+                   c1=='.'||
+                   c1==','||
+                   c1=='!'||
+                   c1=='?'||
+                   c1=='/'||
+                   c1==':'||
+                   c1==';') {
                    fold_state = 1;
-               /* just after special */
+                   /* just after special */
                } else if (!is_alnum(prev0)) {
                    f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
                    fold_state = LF;
                } else if ((prev0==SP) ||   /* ignored new f_line */
-                      (prev0==LF)||        /* ignored new f_line */
-                      (prev0&0x80)) {        /* X0208 - ASCII */
+                          (prev0==LF)||        /* ignored new f_line */
+                          (prev0&0x80)) {        /* X0208 - ASCII */
                    f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
-                    fold_state = LF;/* add one new f_line before this character */
-                } else {
-                    fold_state = 1;  /* default no fold in ASCII */
-                }
-            } else {
-                if (c2=='!') {
-                    if (c1=='"')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!"\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='#')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!#\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='W')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!W\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='K')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!K\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='$')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!$\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='%')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!%\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='\'') fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!\\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='(')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!(\e(B */
-                    else if (c1==')')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!)\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='*')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!*\e(B */
-                    else if (c1=='+')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!+\e(B */
-                    else if (c1==',')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!,\e(B */
-                         /* default no fold in kinsoku */
+                   fold_state = LF;/* add one new f_line before this character */
+               } else {
+                   fold_state = 1;  /* default no fold in ASCII */
+               }
+           } else {
+               if (c2=='!') {
+                   if (c1=='"')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!"\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='#')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!#\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='W')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!W\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='K')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!K\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='$')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!$\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='%')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!%\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='\'') fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!\\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='(')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!(\e(B */
+                   else if (c1==')')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!)\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='*')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!*\e(B */
+                   else if (c1=='+')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!+\e(B */
+                   else if (c1==',')  fold_state = 1; /* \e$B!,\e(B */
+                   /* default no fold in kinsoku */
                    else {
                        fold_state = LF;
                        f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
                        /* add one new f_line before this character */
                    }
-                } else {
+               } else {
                    f_line = char_size(c2,c1);
-                    fold_state = LF;
-                    /* add one new f_line before this character */
-                }
-            }
-        }
+                   fold_state = LF;
+                   /* add one new f_line before this character */
+               }
+           }
+       }
     }
     /* terminator process */
     switch(fold_state) {
-        case LF:
-            OCONV_NEWLINE((*o_fconv));
-            (*o_fconv)(c2,c1);
-            break;
-        case 0:
-            return;
-        case CR:
-            OCONV_NEWLINE((*o_fconv));
-            break;
-        case TAB:
-        case SP:
-            (*o_fconv)(0,SP);
-            break;
-        default:
-            (*o_fconv)(c2,c1);
+    case LF:
+       oconv_newline(o_fconv);
+       (*o_fconv)(c2,c1);
+       break;
+    case 0:
+       return;
+    case CR:
+       oconv_newline(o_fconv);
+       break;
+    case TAB:
+    case SP:
+       (*o_fconv)(0,SP);
+       break;
+    default:
+       (*o_fconv)(c2,c1);
     }
 }
 
-nkf_char z_prev2=0,z_prev1=0;
+static nkf_char z_prev2=0,z_prev1=0;
 
-void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
 
     /* if (c2) c1 &= 0x7f; assertion */
@@ -3388,13 +4001,17 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                    z_prev2 = 0;
                    (*o_zconv)(ev[(z_prev1-SP)*2], ev[(z_prev1-SP)*2+1]);
                    return;
+               } else if (x0213_f && c1 == (0xdf&0x7f) && ev_x0213[(z_prev1-SP)*2]) {  /* \e$BH>ByE@\e(B */
+                   z_prev2 = 0;
+                   (*o_zconv)(ev_x0213[(z_prev1-SP)*2], ev_x0213[(z_prev1-SP)*2+1]);
+                   return;
                }
            }
            z_prev2 = 0;
            (*o_zconv)(cv[(z_prev1-SP)*2], cv[(z_prev1-SP)*2+1]);
        }
        if (c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K) {
-           if (dv[(c1-SP)*2] || ev[(c1-SP)*2]) {
+           if (dv[(c1-SP)*2] || ev[(c1-SP)*2] || (x0213_f && ev_x0213[(c1-SP)*2])) {
                /* wait for \e$BByE@\e(B or \e$BH>ByE@\e(B */
                z_prev1 = c1;
                z_prev2 = c2;
@@ -3407,33 +4024,33 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     }
 
     if (c2 == EOF) {
-        (*o_zconv)(c2, c1);
-        return;
+       (*o_zconv)(c2, c1);
+       return;
     }
 
     if (alpha_f&1 && c2 == 0x23) {
        /* JISX0208 Alphabet */
-        c2 = 0;
+       c2 = 0;
     } else if (c2 == 0x21) {
        /* JISX0208 Kigou */
-       if (0x21==c1) {
-           if (alpha_f&2) {
-               c2 = 0;
-               c1 = SP;
-           } else if (alpha_f&4) {
-                (*o_zconv)(0, SP);
-                (*o_zconv)(0, SP);
-                return;
-           }
-       } else if (alpha_f&1 && 0x20<c1 && c1<0x7f && fv[c1-0x20]) {
-           c2 =  0;
-           c1 = fv[c1-0x20];
-       }
+       if (0x21==c1) {
+           if (alpha_f&2) {
+               c2 = 0;
+               c1 = SP;
+           } else if (alpha_f&4) {
+               (*o_zconv)(0, SP);
+               (*o_zconv)(0, SP);
+               return;
+           }
+       } else if (alpha_f&1 && 0x20<c1 && c1<0x7f && fv[c1-0x20]) {
+           c2 =  0;
+           c1 = fv[c1-0x20];
+       }
     }
 
     if (alpha_f&8 && c2 == 0) {
        /* HTML Entity */
-       char *entity = 0;
+       const char *entity = 0;
        switch (c1){
        case '>': entity = "&gt;"; break;
        case '<': entity = "&lt;"; break;
@@ -3449,7 +4066,7 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     if (alpha_f & 16) {
        /* JIS X 0208 Katakana to JIS X 0201 Katakana */
        if (c2 == 0x21) {
-           char c = 0;
+           nkf_char c = 0;
            switch (c1) {
            case 0x23:
                /* U+3002 (0x8142) Ideographic Full Stop -> U+FF61 (0xA1) Halfwidth Ideographic Full Stop */
@@ -3502,8 +4119,8 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                0x4D00, 0x4D5E, 0x4D5F, 0x4E00, 0x4E5E, 0x4E5F, 0x4F00, 0x5000,
                0x5100, 0x5200, 0x5300, 0x2C00, 0x5400, 0x2D00, 0x5500, 0x2E00,
                0x5600, 0x5700, 0x5800, 0x5900, 0x5A00, 0x5B00, 0x0000, 0x5C00,
-               0x0000, 0x0000, 0x2600, 0x5D00, 0x335E, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000,
-               0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x0000
+               0x0000, 0x0000, 0x2600, 0x5D00, 0x335E, 0x0000, 0x0000, 0x365F,
+               0x375F, 0x385F, 0x395F, 0x3A5F, 0x3E5F, 0x425F, 0x445F, 0x0000
            };
            if (fullwidth_to_halfwidth[c1-0x20]){
                c2 = fullwidth_to_halfwidth[c1-0x20];
@@ -3513,6 +4130,10 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
                }
                return;
            }
+       } else if (c2 == 0 && nkf_char_unicode_p(c1) &&
+           ((c1&VALUE_MASK) == 0x3099 || (c1&VALUE_MASK) == 0x309A)) { /* \e$B9g@.MQByE@!&H>ByE@\e(B */
+           (*o_zconv)(JIS_X_0201_1976_K, 0x5E + (c1&VALUE_MASK) - 0x3099);
+           return;
        }
     }
     (*o_zconv)(c2,c1);
@@ -3520,23 +4141,24 @@ void z_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 
 
 #define rot13(c)  ( \
-      ( c < 'A') ? c: \
-      (c <= 'M')  ? (c + 13): \
-      (c <= 'Z')  ? (c - 13): \
-      (c < 'a')   ? (c): \
-      (c <= 'm')  ? (c + 13): \
-      (c <= 'z')  ? (c - 13): \
-      (c) \
-)
+                  ( c < 'A') ? c: \
+                  (c <= 'M')  ? (c + 13): \
+                  (c <= 'Z')  ? (c - 13): \
+                  (c < 'a')   ? (c): \
+                  (c <= 'm')  ? (c + 13): \
+                  (c <= 'z')  ? (c - 13): \
+                  (c) \
+                 )
 
 #define  rot47(c) ( \
-      ( c < '!') ? c: \
-      ( c <= 'O') ? (c + 47) : \
-      ( c <= '~') ?  (c - 47) : \
-      c \
-)
-
-void rot_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+                  ( c < '!') ? c: \
+                  ( c <= 'O') ? (c + 47) : \
+                  ( c <= '~') ?  (c - 47) : \
+                  c \
+                 )
+
+static void
+rot_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (c2 == 0 || c2 == JIS_X_0201_1976_K || c2 == ISO_8859_1) {
        c1 = rot13(c1);
@@ -3547,62 +4169,64 @@ void rot_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     (*o_rot_conv)(c2,c1);
 }
 
-void hira_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+hira_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (hira_f & 1) {
-        if (c2 == 0x25) {
-            if (0x20 < c1 && c1 < 0x74) {
-                c2 = 0x24;
-                (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
-                return;
-            } else if (c1 == 0x74 && nkf_enc_unicode_p(output_encoding)) {
-                c2 = 0;
-                c1 = nkf_char_unicode_new(0x3094);
-                (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
-                return;
-            }
-        } else if (c2 == 0x21 && (c1 == 0x33 || c1 == 0x34)) {
-            c1 += 2;
-            (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
-            return;
-        }
+       if (c2 == 0x25) {
+           if (0x20 < c1 && c1 < 0x74) {
+               c2 = 0x24;
+               (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
+               return;
+           } else if (c1 == 0x74 && nkf_enc_unicode_p(output_encoding)) {
+               c2 = 0;
+               c1 = nkf_char_unicode_new(0x3094);
+               (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
+               return;
+           }
+       } else if (c2 == 0x21 && (c1 == 0x33 || c1 == 0x34)) {
+           c1 += 2;
+           (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
+           return;
+       }
     }
     if (hira_f & 2) {
-        if (c2 == 0 && c1 == nkf_char_unicode_new(0x3094)) {
-            c2 = 0x25;
-            c1 = 0x74;
-        } else if (c2 == 0x24 && 0x20 < c1 && c1 < 0x74) {
-            c2 = 0x25;
-        } else if (c2 == 0x21 && (c1 == 0x35 || c1 == 0x36)) {
-            c1 -= 2;
-        }
+       if (c2 == 0 && c1 == nkf_char_unicode_new(0x3094)) {
+           c2 = 0x25;
+           c1 = 0x74;
+       } else if (c2 == 0x24 && 0x20 < c1 && c1 < 0x74) {
+           c2 = 0x25;
+       } else if (c2 == 0x21 && (c1 == 0x35 || c1 == 0x36)) {
+           c1 -= 2;
+       }
     }
     (*o_hira_conv)(c2,c1);
 }
 
 
-void iso2022jp_check_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+iso2022jp_check_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
 #define RANGE_NUM_MAX 18
     static const nkf_char range[RANGE_NUM_MAX][2] = {
-        {0x222f, 0x2239,},
-        {0x2242, 0x2249,},
-        {0x2251, 0x225b,},
-        {0x226b, 0x2271,},
-        {0x227a, 0x227d,},
-        {0x2321, 0x232f,},
-        {0x233a, 0x2340,},
-        {0x235b, 0x2360,},
-        {0x237b, 0x237e,},
-        {0x2474, 0x247e,},
-        {0x2577, 0x257e,},
-        {0x2639, 0x2640,},
-        {0x2659, 0x267e,},
-        {0x2742, 0x2750,},
-        {0x2772, 0x277e,},
-        {0x2841, 0x287e,},
-        {0x4f54, 0x4f7e,},
-        {0x7425, 0x747e},
+       {0x222f, 0x2239,},
+       {0x2242, 0x2249,},
+       {0x2251, 0x225b,},
+       {0x226b, 0x2271,},
+       {0x227a, 0x227d,},
+       {0x2321, 0x232f,},
+       {0x233a, 0x2340,},
+       {0x235b, 0x2360,},
+       {0x237b, 0x237e,},
+       {0x2474, 0x247e,},
+       {0x2577, 0x257e,},
+       {0x2639, 0x2640,},
+       {0x2659, 0x267e,},
+       {0x2742, 0x2750,},
+       {0x2772, 0x277e,},
+       {0x2841, 0x287e,},
+       {0x4f54, 0x4f7e,},
+       {0x7425, 0x747e},
     };
     nkf_char i;
     nkf_char start, end, c;
@@ -3637,6 +4261,7 @@ static const unsigned char *mime_pattern[] = {
     (const unsigned char *)"\075?ISO-8859-1?Q?",
     (const unsigned char *)"\075?ISO-8859-1?B?",
     (const unsigned char *)"\075?ISO-2022-JP?B?",
+    (const unsigned char *)"\075?ISO-2022-JP?B?",
     (const unsigned char *)"\075?ISO-2022-JP?Q?",
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE)
     (const unsigned char *)"\075?UTF-8?B?",
@@ -3649,7 +4274,7 @@ static const unsigned char *mime_pattern[] = {
 
 /* \e$B3:Ev$9$k%3!<%I$NM%@hEY$r>e$2$k$?$a$NL\0u\e(B */
 nkf_char (*mime_priority_func[])(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0) = {
-    e_iconv, s_iconv, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+    e_iconv, s_iconv, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE)
     w_iconv, w_iconv,
 #endif
@@ -3657,7 +4282,7 @@ nkf_char (*mime_priority_func[])(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1, nkf_char c0) = {
 };
 
 static const nkf_char mime_encode[] = {
-    EUC_JP, SHIFT_JIS, ISO_8859_1, ISO_8859_1, JIS_X_0208, JIS_X_0201_1976_K,
+    EUC_JP, SHIFT_JIS, ISO_8859_1, ISO_8859_1, JIS_X_0208, JIS_X_0201_1976_K, JIS_X_0201_1976_K,
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE)
     UTF_8, UTF_8,
 #endif
@@ -3666,7 +4291,7 @@ static const nkf_char mime_encode[] = {
 };
 
 static const nkf_char mime_encode_method[] = {
-    'B', 'B','Q', 'B', 'B', 'Q',
+    'B', 'B','Q', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'Q',
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE)
     'B', 'Q',
 #endif
@@ -3690,18 +4315,21 @@ static nkf_char (*mime_iconv_back)(nkf_char c2,nkf_char c1,nkf_char c0) = NULL;
 
 #define MAXRECOVER 20
 
-static void mime_input_buf_unshift(nkf_char c)
+static void
+mime_input_buf_unshift(nkf_char c)
 {
     mime_input_buf(--mime_input_state.top) = (unsigned char)c;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+mime_ungetc(nkf_char c, ARG_UNUSED FILE *f)
 {
     mime_input_buf_unshift(c);
     return c;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_ungetc_buf(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+mime_ungetc_buf(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 {
     if (mimebuf_f)
        (*i_mungetc_buf)(c,f);
@@ -3710,15 +4338,17 @@ nkf_char mime_ungetc_buf(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
     return c;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_getc_buf(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+mime_getc_buf(FILE *f)
 {
-    /* we don't keep eof of mime_input_buf, becase it contains ?= as
+    /* we don't keep eof of mime_input_buf, because it contains ?= as
        a terminator. It was checked in mime_integrity. */
     return ((mimebuf_f)?
-        (*i_mgetc_buf)(f):mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++));
+           (*i_mgetc_buf)(f):mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++));
 }
 
-void switch_mime_getc(void)
+static void
+switch_mime_getc(void)
 {
     if (i_getc!=mime_getc) {
        i_mgetc = i_getc; i_getc = mime_getc;
@@ -3730,7 +4360,8 @@ void switch_mime_getc(void)
     }
 }
 
-void unswitch_mime_getc(void)
+static void
+unswitch_mime_getc(void)
 {
     if(mime_f==STRICT_MIME) {
        i_mgetc = i_mgetc_buf;
@@ -3742,7 +4373,8 @@ void unswitch_mime_getc(void)
     mime_iconv_back = NULL;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_integrity(FILE *f, const unsigned char *p)
+static nkf_char
+mime_integrity(FILE *f, const unsigned char *p)
 {
     nkf_char c,d;
     unsigned int q;
@@ -3755,22 +4387,22 @@ nkf_char mime_integrity(FILE *f, const unsigned char *p)
     d = 0;
     q = mime_input_state.input;
     while((c=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF) {
-        if (((mime_input_state.input-mime_input_state.top)&MIME_BUF_MASK)==0) {
+       if (((mime_input_state.input-mime_input_state.top)&MIME_BUF_MASK)==0) {
            break;   /* buffer full */
        }
-        if (c=='=' && d=='?') {
-            /* checked. skip header, start decode */
-            mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++) = (unsigned char)c;
-            /* mime_last_input = mime_input_state.input; */
-            mime_input_state.input = q;
+       if (c=='=' && d=='?') {
+           /* checked. skip header, start decode */
+           mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++) = (unsigned char)c;
+           /* mime_last_input = mime_input_state.input; */
+           mime_input_state.input = q;
            switch_mime_getc();
-            return 1;
-        }
-        if (!( (c=='+'||c=='/'|| c=='=' || c=='?' || is_alnum(c))))
-            break;
-        /* Should we check length mod 4? */
-        mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++) = (unsigned char)c;
-        d=c;
+           return 1;
+       }
+       if (!( (c=='+'||c=='/'|| c=='=' || c=='?' || is_alnum(c))))
+           break;
+       /* Should we check length mod 4? */
+       mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++) = (unsigned char)c;
+       d=c;
     }
     /* In case of Incomplete MIME, no MIME decode  */
     mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.input++) = (unsigned char)c;
@@ -3780,7 +4412,8 @@ nkf_char mime_integrity(FILE *f, const unsigned char *p)
     return 1;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_begin_strict(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+mime_begin_strict(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char c1 = 0;
     int i,j,k;
@@ -3794,24 +4427,24 @@ nkf_char mime_begin_strict(FILE *f)
     r[0]='='; r[1]='?';
 
     for(i=2;p[i]>SP;i++) {                   /* start at =? */
-        if (((r[i] = c1 = (*i_getc)(f))==EOF) || nkf_toupper(c1) != p[i]) {
-            /* pattern fails, try next one */
-            q = p;
-            while (mime_pattern[++j]) {
+       if (((r[i] = c1 = (*i_getc)(f))==EOF) || nkf_toupper(c1) != p[i]) {
+           /* pattern fails, try next one */
+           q = p;
+           while (mime_pattern[++j]) {
                p = mime_pattern[j];
-                for(k=2;k<i;k++)              /* assume length(p) > i */
-                    if (p[k]!=q[k]) break;
-                if (k==i && nkf_toupper(c1)==p[k]) break;
-            }
+               for(k=2;k<i;k++)              /* assume length(p) > i */
+                   if (p[k]!=q[k]) break;
+               if (k==i && nkf_toupper(c1)==p[k]) break;
+           }
            p = mime_pattern[j];
-            if (p) continue;  /* found next one, continue */
-            /* all fails, output from recovery buffer */
-            (*i_ungetc)(c1,f);
-            for(j=0;j<i;j++) {
-                (*oconv)(0,r[j]);
-            }
-            return c1;
-        }
+           if (p) continue;  /* found next one, continue */
+           /* all fails, output from recovery buffer */
+           (*i_ungetc)(c1,f);
+           for(j=0;j<i;j++) {
+               (*oconv)(0,r[j]);
+           }
+           return c1;
+       }
     }
     mime_decode_mode = p[i-2];
 
@@ -3820,20 +4453,21 @@ nkf_char mime_begin_strict(FILE *f)
     clr_code_score(find_inputcode_byfunc(mime_priority_func[j]), SCORE_iMIME);
 
     if (mime_decode_mode=='B') {
-        mimebuf_f = unbuf_f;
-        if (!unbuf_f) {
-            /* do MIME integrity check */
-            return mime_integrity(f,mime_pattern[j]);
-        }
+       mimebuf_f = unbuf_f;
+       if (!unbuf_f) {
+           /* do MIME integrity check */
+           return mime_integrity(f,mime_pattern[j]);
+       }
     }
     switch_mime_getc();
     mimebuf_f = TRUE;
     return c1;
 }
 
-nkf_char mime_begin(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+mime_begin(FILE *f)
 {
-    nkf_char c1;
+    nkf_char c1 = 0;
     int i,k;
 
     /* In NONSTRICT mode, only =? is checked. In case of failure, we  */
@@ -3843,43 +4477,43 @@ nkf_char mime_begin(FILE *f)
     k = mime_input_state.last;
     mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++)='='; mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++)='?';
     for(i=2;i<MAXRECOVER;i++) {                   /* start at =? */
-        /* We accept any character type even if it is breaked by new lines */
-        c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
-        if (c1==LF||c1==SP||c1==CR||
-                c1=='-'||c1=='_'||is_alnum(c1)) continue;
-        if (c1=='=') {
-            /* Failed. But this could be another MIME preemble */
-            (*i_ungetc)(c1,f);
-            mime_input_state.last--;
-            break;
-        }
-        if (c1!='?') break;
-        else {
-            /* c1=='?' */
-            c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
-            if (!(++i<MAXRECOVER) || c1==EOF) break;
-            if (c1=='b'||c1=='B') {
-                mime_decode_mode = 'B';
-            } else if (c1=='q'||c1=='Q') {
-                mime_decode_mode = 'Q';
-            } else {
-                break;
-            }
-            c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
-            if (!(++i<MAXRECOVER) || c1==EOF) break;
-            if (c1!='?') {
-                mime_decode_mode = FALSE;
-            }
-            break;
-        }
+       /* We accept any character type even if it is breaked by new lines */
+       c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
+       if (c1==LF||c1==SP||c1==CR||
+           c1=='-'||c1=='_'||is_alnum(c1)) continue;
+       if (c1=='=') {
+           /* Failed. But this could be another MIME preemble */
+           (*i_ungetc)(c1,f);
+           mime_input_state.last--;
+           break;
+       }
+       if (c1!='?') break;
+       else {
+           /* c1=='?' */
+           c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
+           if (!(++i<MAXRECOVER) || c1==EOF) break;
+           if (c1=='b'||c1=='B') {
+               mime_decode_mode = 'B';
+           } else if (c1=='q'||c1=='Q') {
+               mime_decode_mode = 'Q';
+           } else {
+               break;
+           }
+           c1 = (*i_getc)(f); mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)c1;
+           if (!(++i<MAXRECOVER) || c1==EOF) break;
+           if (c1!='?') {
+               mime_decode_mode = FALSE;
+           }
+           break;
+       }
     }
     switch_mime_getc();
     if (!mime_decode_mode) {
-        /* false MIME premble, restart from mime_buffer */
-        mime_decode_mode = 1;  /* no decode, but read from the mime_buffer */
-        /* Since we are in MIME mode until buffer becomes empty,    */
-        /* we never go into mime_begin again for a while.           */
-        return c1;
+       /* false MIME premble, restart from mime_buffer */
+       mime_decode_mode = 1;  /* no decode, but read from the mime_buffer */
+       /* Since we are in MIME mode until buffer becomes empty,    */
+       /* we never go into mime_begin again for a while.           */
+       return c1;
     }
     /* discard mime preemble, and goto MIME mode */
     mime_input_state.last = k;
@@ -3888,20 +4522,23 @@ nkf_char mime_begin(FILE *f)
 }
 
 #ifdef CHECK_OPTION
-void no_putc(nkf_char c)
+static void
+no_putc(ARG_UNUSED nkf_char c)
 {
     ;
 }
 
-void debug(const char *str)
+static void
+debug(const char *str)
 {
     if (debug_f){
-        fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", str ? str : "NULL");
+       fprintf(stderr, "%s\n", str ? str : "NULL");
     }
 }
 #endif
 
-void set_input_codename(char *codename)
+static void
+set_input_codename(const char *codename)
 {
     if (!input_codename) {
        input_codename = codename;
@@ -3910,7 +4547,8 @@ void set_input_codename(char *codename)
     }
 }
 
-static char* get_guessed_code(void)
+static const char*
+get_guessed_code(void)
 {
     if (input_codename && !*input_codename) {
        input_codename = "BINARY";
@@ -3922,7 +4560,9 @@ static char* get_guessed_code(void)
            if (p->score & (SCORE_DEPEND|SCORE_CP932))
                input_codename = "CP932";
        } else if (strcmp(input_codename, "EUC-JP") == 0) {
-           if (p->score & (SCORE_X0212))
+           if (p->score & SCORE_X0213)
+               input_codename = "EUC-JIS-2004";
+           else if (p->score & (SCORE_X0212))
                input_codename = "EUCJP-MS";
            else if (p->score & (SCORE_DEPEND|SCORE_CP932))
                input_codename = "CP51932";
@@ -3937,7 +4577,8 @@ static char* get_guessed_code(void)
 }
 
 #if !defined(PERL_XS) && !defined(WIN32DLL)
-void print_guessed_code(char *filename)
+static void
+print_guessed_code(char *filename)
 {
     if (filename != NULL) printf("%s: ", filename);
     if (input_codename && !*input_codename) {
@@ -3947,8 +4588,13 @@ void print_guessed_code(char *filename)
        if (guess_f == 1) {
            printf("%s\n", input_codename);
        } else {
-           printf("%s%s\n",
+           printf("%s%s%s%s\n",
                   input_codename,
+                  iconv != w_iconv16 && iconv != w_iconv32 ? "" :
+                  input_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? " LE" :
+                  input_endian == ENDIAN_BIG ? " BE" :
+                  "[BUG]",
+                  input_bom_f ? " (BOM)" : "",
                   input_eol == CR   ? " (CR)" :
                   input_eol == LF   ? " (LF)" :
                   input_eol == CRLF ? " (CRLF)" :
@@ -3961,103 +4607,110 @@ void print_guessed_code(char *filename)
 
 #ifdef INPUT_OPTION
 
-nkf_char hex_getc(nkf_char ch, FILE *f, nkf_char (*g)(FILE *f), nkf_char (*u)(nkf_char c, FILE *f))
+static nkf_char
+hex_getc(nkf_char ch, FILE *f, nkf_char (*g)(FILE *f), nkf_char (*u)(nkf_char c, FILE *f))
 {
     nkf_char c1, c2, c3;
     c1 = (*g)(f);
     if (c1 != ch){
-        return c1;
+       return c1;
     }
     c2 = (*g)(f);
     if (!nkf_isxdigit(c2)){
-        (*u)(c2, f);
-        return c1;
+       (*u)(c2, f);
+       return c1;
     }
     c3 = (*g)(f);
     if (!nkf_isxdigit(c3)){
-        (*u)(c2, f);
-        (*u)(c3, f);
-        return c1;
+       (*u)(c2, f);
+       (*u)(c3, f);
+       return c1;
     }
     return (hex2bin(c2) << 4) | hex2bin(c3);
 }
 
-nkf_char cap_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+cap_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     return hex_getc(':', f, i_cgetc, i_cungetc);
 }
 
-nkf_char cap_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+cap_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 {
     return (*i_cungetc)(c, f);
 }
 
-nkf_char url_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+url_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     return hex_getc('%', f, i_ugetc, i_uungetc);
 }
 
-nkf_char url_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+url_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 {
     return (*i_uungetc)(c, f);
 }
 #endif
 
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
-nkf_char numchar_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+numchar_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char (*g)(FILE *) = i_ngetc;
     nkf_char (*u)(nkf_char c ,FILE *f) = i_nungetc;
     int i = 0, j;
-    nkf_char buf[8];
-    long c = -1;
+    nkf_char buf[12];
+    nkf_char c = -1;
 
     buf[i] = (*g)(f);
     if (buf[i] == '&'){
-        buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
-        if (buf[i] == '#'){
-            c = 0;
-            buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
-            if (buf[i] == 'x' || buf[i] == 'X'){
-                for (j = 0; j < 7; j++){
-                    buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
-                    if (!nkf_isxdigit(buf[i])){
-                        if (buf[i] != ';'){
-                            c = -1;
-                        }
-                        break;
-                    }
-                    c <<= 4;
-                    c |= hex2bin(buf[i]);
-                }
-            }else{
-                for (j = 0; j < 8; j++){
-                    if (j){
-                        buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
-                    }
-                    if (!nkf_isdigit(buf[i])){
-                        if (buf[i] != ';'){
-                            c = -1;
-                        }
-                        break;
-                    }
-                    c *= 10;
-                    c += hex2bin(buf[i]);
-                }
-            }
-        }
+       buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
+       if (buf[i] == '#'){
+           c = 0;
+           buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
+           if (buf[i] == 'x' || buf[i] == 'X'){
+               for (j = 0; j < 7; j++){
+                   buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
+                   if (!nkf_isxdigit(buf[i])){
+                       if (buf[i] != ';'){
+                           c = -1;
+                       }
+                       break;
+                   }
+                   c <<= 4;
+                   c |= hex2bin(buf[i]);
+               }
+           }else{
+               for (j = 0; j < 8; j++){
+                   if (j){
+                       buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
+                   }
+                   if (!nkf_isdigit(buf[i])){
+                       if (buf[i] != ';'){
+                           c = -1;
+                       }
+                       break;
+                   }
+                   c *= 10;
+                   c += hex2bin(buf[i]);
+               }
+           }
+       }
     }
     if (c != -1){
-        return nkf_char_unicode_new(c);
+       return nkf_char_unicode_new(c);
     }
     while (i > 0){
-        (*u)(buf[i], f);
-        --i;
+       (*u)(buf[i], f);
+       --i;
     }
     return buf[0];
 }
 
-nkf_char numchar_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+numchar_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 {
     return (*i_nungetc)(c, f);
 }
@@ -4065,72 +4718,89 @@ nkf_char numchar_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 
 #ifdef UNICODE_NORMALIZATION
 
-/* Normalization Form C */
-nkf_char nfc_getc(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+nfc_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char (*g)(FILE *f) = i_nfc_getc;
     nkf_char (*u)(nkf_char c ,FILE *f) = i_nfc_ungetc;
-    int i=0, j, k=1, lower, upper;
-    nkf_char buf[9];
+    nkf_buf_t *buf = nkf_state->nfc_buf;
     const unsigned char *array;
+    int lower=0, upper=NORMALIZATION_TABLE_LENGTH-1;
+    nkf_char c = (*g)(f);
 
-    buf[i] = (*g)(f);
-    while (k > 0 && ((buf[i] & 0xc0) != 0x80)){
-       lower=0, upper=NORMALIZATION_TABLE_LENGTH-1;
-       while (upper >= lower) {
-           j = (lower+upper) / 2;
-           array = normalization_table[j].nfd;
-           for (k=0; k < NORMALIZATION_TABLE_NFD_LENGTH && array[k]; k++){
-               if (array[k] != buf[k]){
-                   array[k] < buf[k] ? (lower = j + 1) : (upper = j - 1);
-                   k = 0;
+    if (c == EOF || c > 0xFF || (c & 0xc0) == 0x80) return c;
+
+    nkf_buf_push(buf, c);
+    do {
+       while (lower <= upper) {
+           int mid = (lower+upper) / 2;
+           int len;
+           array = normalization_table[mid].nfd;
+           for (len=0; len < NORMALIZATION_TABLE_NFD_LENGTH && array[len]; len++) {
+               if (len >= nkf_buf_length(buf)) {
+                   c = (*g)(f);
+                   if (c == EOF) {
+                       len = 0;
+                       lower = 1, upper = 0;
+                       break;
+                   }
+                   nkf_buf_push(buf, c);
+               }
+               if (array[len] != nkf_buf_at(buf, len)) {
+                   if (array[len] < nkf_buf_at(buf, len)) lower = mid + 1;
+                   else  upper = mid - 1;
+                   len = 0;
                    break;
-               } else if (k >= i)
-                   buf[++i] = (*g)(f);
+               }
            }
-           if (k > 0){
-               array = normalization_table[j].nfc;
+           if (len > 0) {
+               int i;
+               array = normalization_table[mid].nfc;
+               nkf_buf_clear(buf);
                for (i=0; i < NORMALIZATION_TABLE_NFC_LENGTH && array[i]; i++)
-                   buf[i] = (nkf_char)(array[i]);
-               i--;
+                   nkf_buf_push(buf, array[i]);
                break;
            }
        }
-       while (i > 0)
-           (*u)(buf[i--], f);
-    }
-    return buf[0];
+    } while (lower <= upper);
+
+    while (nkf_buf_length(buf) > 1) (*u)(nkf_buf_pop(buf), f);
+    c = nkf_buf_pop(buf);
+
+    return c;
 }
 
-nkf_char nfc_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+nfc_ungetc(nkf_char c, FILE *f)
 {
     return (*i_nfc_ungetc)(c, f);
 }
 #endif /* UNICODE_NORMALIZATION */
 
 
-static nkf_char base64decode(nkf_char c)
+static nkf_char
+base64decode(nkf_char c)
 {
     int             i;
     if (c > '@') {
-        if (c < '[') {
-            i = c - 'A';                        /* A..Z 0-25 */
+       if (c < '[') {
+           i = c - 'A';                        /* A..Z 0-25 */
        } else if (c == '_') {
            i = '?'         /* 63 */ ;          /* _  63 */
-        } else {
-            i = c - 'G'     /* - 'a' + 26 */ ;  /* a..z 26-51 */
+       } else {
+           i = c - 'G'     /* - 'a' + 26 */ ;  /* a..z 26-51 */
        }
     } else if (c > '/') {
-        i = c - '0' + '4'   /* - '0' + 52 */ ;  /* 0..9 52-61 */
+       i = c - '0' + '4'   /* - '0' + 52 */ ;  /* 0..9 52-61 */
     } else if (c == '+' || c == '-') {
-        i = '>'             /* 62 */ ;          /* + and -  62 */
+       i = '>'             /* 62 */ ;          /* + and -  62 */
     } else {
-        i = '?'             /* 63 */ ;          /* / 63 */
+       i = '?'             /* 63 */ ;          /* / 63 */
     }
     return (i);
 }
 
-nkf_char
+static nkf_char
 mime_getc(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char c1, c2, c3, c4, cc;
@@ -4141,7 +4811,7 @@ mime_getc(FILE *f)
     nkf_char lwsp_size = 128;
 
     if (mime_input_state.top != mime_input_state.last) {  /* Something is in FIFO */
-        return  mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.top++);
+       return  mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.top++);
     }
     if (mime_decode_mode==1 ||mime_decode_mode==FALSE) {
        mime_decode_mode=FALSE;
@@ -4150,38 +4820,34 @@ mime_getc(FILE *f)
     }
 
     if (mimebuf_f == FIXED_MIME)
-        exit_mode = mime_decode_mode;
+       exit_mode = mime_decode_mode;
     else
-        exit_mode = FALSE;
+       exit_mode = FALSE;
     if (mime_decode_mode == 'Q') {
-        if ((c1 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
-restart_mime_q:
-        if (c1=='_' && mimebuf_f != FIXED_MIME) return SP;
+       if ((c1 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
+      restart_mime_q:
+       if (c1=='_' && mimebuf_f != FIXED_MIME) return SP;
        if (c1<=SP || DEL<=c1) {
            mime_decode_mode = exit_mode; /* prepare for quit */
            return c1;
        }
-        if (c1!='=' && (c1!='?' || mimebuf_f == FIXED_MIME)) {
+       if (c1!='=' && (c1!='?' || mimebuf_f == FIXED_MIME)) {
            return c1;
        }
 
-        mime_decode_mode = exit_mode; /* prepare for quit */
-        if ((c2 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
-        if (c1=='?'&&c2=='=' && mimebuf_f != FIXED_MIME) {
-            /* end Q encoding */
-            input_mode = exit_mode;
+       mime_decode_mode = exit_mode; /* prepare for quit */
+       if ((c2 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
+       if (c1=='?'&&c2=='=' && mimebuf_f != FIXED_MIME) {
+           /* end Q encoding */
+           input_mode = exit_mode;
            lwsp_count = 0;
-           lwsp_buf = malloc((lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
-           if (lwsp_buf==NULL) {
-               perror("can't malloc");
-               return -1;
-           }
+           lwsp_buf = nkf_xmalloc((lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
            while ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF) {
                switch (c1) {
                case LF:
                case CR:
                    if (c1==LF) {
-                       if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && (c1==SP||c1==TAB)) {
+                       if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && nkf_isblank(c1)) {
                            i_ungetc(SP,f);
                            continue;
                        } else {
@@ -4190,7 +4856,7 @@ restart_mime_q:
                        c1 = LF;
                    } else {
                        if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && c1 == LF) {
-                           if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && (c1==SP||c1==TAB)) {
+                           if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && nkf_isblank(c1)) {
                                i_ungetc(SP,f);
                                continue;
                            } else {
@@ -4208,12 +4874,7 @@ restart_mime_q:
                    lwsp_buf[lwsp_count] = (unsigned char)c1;
                    if (lwsp_count++>lwsp_size){
                        lwsp_size <<= 1;
-                       lwsp_buf_new = realloc(lwsp_buf, (lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
-                       if (lwsp_buf_new==NULL) {
-                           free(lwsp_buf);
-                           perror("can't realloc");
-                           return -1;
-                       }
+                       lwsp_buf_new = nkf_xrealloc(lwsp_buf, (lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
                        lwsp_buf = lwsp_buf_new;
                    }
                    continue;
@@ -4226,70 +4887,66 @@ restart_mime_q:
                    i_ungetc(lwsp_buf[lwsp_count],f);
                c1 = lwsp_buf[0];
            }
-           free(lwsp_buf);
-            return c1;
-        }
-        if (c1=='='&&c2<SP) { /* this is soft wrap */
-            while((c1 =  (*i_mgetc)(f)) <=SP) {
-               if ((c1 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
+           nkf_xfree(lwsp_buf);
+           return c1;
+       }
+       if (c1=='='&&c2<SP) { /* this is soft wrap */
+           while((c1 =  (*i_mgetc)(f)) <=SP) {
+               if (c1 == EOF) return (EOF);
            }
-            mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
+           mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
            goto restart_mime_q;
        }
-        if (c1=='?') {
-            mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
-            (*i_mungetc)(c2,f);
-            return c1;
-        }
-        if ((c3 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
-        if (c2<=SP) return c2;
-        mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
-        return ((hex2bin(c2)<<4) + hex2bin(c3));
+       if (c1=='?') {
+           mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
+           (*i_mungetc)(c2,f);
+           return c1;
+       }
+       if ((c3 = (*i_mgetc)(f)) == EOF) return (EOF);
+       if (c2<=SP) return c2;
+       mime_decode_mode = 'Q'; /* still in MIME */
+       return ((hex2bin(c2)<<4) + hex2bin(c3));
     }
 
     if (mime_decode_mode != 'B') {
-        mime_decode_mode = FALSE;
-        return (*i_mgetc)(f);
+       mime_decode_mode = FALSE;
+       return (*i_mgetc)(f);
     }
 
 
     /* Base64 encoding */
     /*
-        MIME allows line break in the middle of
-        Base64, but we are very pessimistic in decoding
-        in unbuf mode because MIME encoded code may broken by
-        less or editor's control sequence (such as ESC-[-K in unbuffered
-        mode. ignore incomplete MIME.
-    */
+       MIME allows line break in the middle of
+       Base64, but we are very pessimistic in decoding
+       in unbuf mode because MIME encoded code may broken by
+       less or editor's control sequence (such as ESC-[-K in unbuffered
+       mode. ignore incomplete MIME.
+     */
     mode = mime_decode_mode;
     mime_decode_mode = exit_mode;  /* prepare for quit */
 
     while ((c1 = (*i_mgetc)(f))<=SP) {
-        if (c1==EOF)
-            return (EOF);
+       if (c1==EOF)
+           return (EOF);
     }
-mime_c2_retry:
+  mime_c2_retry:
     if ((c2 = (*i_mgetc)(f))<=SP) {
-        if (c2==EOF)
-            return (EOF);
+       if (c2==EOF)
+           return (EOF);
        if (mime_f != STRICT_MIME) goto mime_c2_retry;
-        if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
-        return c2;
+       if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
+       return c2;
     }
     if ((c1 == '?') && (c2 == '=')) {
-        input_mode = ASCII;
+       input_mode = ASCII;
        lwsp_count = 0;
-       lwsp_buf = malloc((lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
-       if (lwsp_buf==NULL) {
-           perror("can't malloc");
-           return -1;
-       }
+       lwsp_buf = nkf_xmalloc((lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
        while ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF) {
            switch (c1) {
            case LF:
            case CR:
                if (c1==LF) {
-                   if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && (c1==SP||c1==TAB)) {
+                   if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && nkf_isblank(c1)) {
                        i_ungetc(SP,f);
                        continue;
                    } else {
@@ -4301,7 +4958,7 @@ mime_c2_retry:
                        if (c1==SP) {
                            i_ungetc(SP,f);
                            continue;
-                       } else if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && (c1==SP||c1==TAB)) {
+                       } else if ((c1=(*i_getc)(f))!=EOF && nkf_isblank(c1)) {
                            i_ungetc(SP,f);
                            continue;
                        } else {
@@ -4319,12 +4976,7 @@ mime_c2_retry:
                lwsp_buf[lwsp_count] = (unsigned char)c1;
                if (lwsp_count++>lwsp_size){
                    lwsp_size <<= 1;
-                   lwsp_buf_new = realloc(lwsp_buf, (lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
-                   if (lwsp_buf_new==NULL) {
-                       free(lwsp_buf);
-                       perror("can't realloc");
-                       return -1;
-                   }
+                   lwsp_buf_new = nkf_xrealloc(lwsp_buf, (lwsp_size+5)*sizeof(char));
                    lwsp_buf = lwsp_buf_new;
                }
                continue;
@@ -4337,24 +4989,24 @@ mime_c2_retry:
                i_ungetc(lwsp_buf[lwsp_count],f);
            c1 = lwsp_buf[0];
        }
-       free(lwsp_buf);
-        return c1;
+       nkf_xfree(lwsp_buf);
+       return c1;
     }
-mime_c3_retry:
+  mime_c3_retry:
     if ((c3 = (*i_mgetc)(f))<=SP) {
-        if (c3==EOF)
-            return (EOF);
+       if (c3==EOF)
+           return (EOF);
        if (mime_f != STRICT_MIME) goto mime_c3_retry;
-        if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
-        return c3;
+       if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
+       return c3;
     }
-mime_c4_retry:
+  mime_c4_retry:
     if ((c4 = (*i_mgetc)(f))<=SP) {
-        if (c4==EOF)
-            return (EOF);
+       if (c4==EOF)
+           return (EOF);
        if (mime_f != STRICT_MIME) goto mime_c4_retry;
-        if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
-        return c4;
+       if (mimebuf_f!=FIXED_MIME) input_mode = ASCII;
+       return c4;
     }
 
     mime_decode_mode = mode; /* still in MIME sigh... */
@@ -4367,33 +5019,33 @@ mime_c4_retry:
     t4 = 0x3f & base64decode(c4);
     cc = ((t1 << 2) & 0x0fc) | ((t2 >> 4) & 0x03);
     if (c2 != '=') {
-        mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
-        cc = ((t2 << 4) & 0x0f0) | ((t3 >> 2) & 0x0f);
-        if (c3 != '=') {
-            mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
-            cc = ((t3 << 6) & 0x0c0) | (t4 & 0x3f);
-            if (c4 != '=')
-                mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
-        }
+       mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
+       cc = ((t2 << 4) & 0x0f0) | ((t3 >> 2) & 0x0f);
+       if (c3 != '=') {
+           mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
+           cc = ((t3 << 6) & 0x0c0) | (t4 & 0x3f);
+           if (c4 != '=')
+               mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.last++) = (unsigned char)cc;
+       }
     } else {
-        return c1;
+       return c1;
     }
     return  mime_input_buf(mime_input_state.top++);
 }
 
 static const char basis_64[] =
-   "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";
+    "ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/";
 
-#define MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH (60)
+#define MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH 74
 static struct {
-    char buf[MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH+1];
+    unsigned char buf[MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH+1];
     int count;
-    nkf_char state;
 } mimeout_state;
 
 /*nkf_char mime_lastchar2, mime_lastchar1;*/
 
-static void open_mime(nkf_char mode)
+static void
+open_mime(nkf_char mode)
 {
     const unsigned char *p;
     int i;
@@ -4409,21 +5061,18 @@ static void open_mime(nkf_char mode)
     i = 0;
     if (base64_count>45) {
        if (mimeout_state.count>0 && nkf_isblank(mimeout_state.buf[i])){
-            (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+           (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
            i++;
        }
-       PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
+       put_newline(o_mputc);
        (*o_mputc)(SP);
        base64_count = 1;
-       if (mimeout_state.count>0
-           && (mimeout_state.buf[i]==SP || mimeout_state.buf[i]==TAB
-               || mimeout_state.buf[i]==CR || mimeout_state.buf[i]==LF)) {
+       if (mimeout_state.count>0 && nkf_isspace(mimeout_state.buf[i])) {
            i++;
        }
     }
     for (;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-       if (mimeout_state.buf[i]==SP || mimeout_state.buf[i]==TAB
-           || mimeout_state.buf[i]==CR || mimeout_state.buf[i]==LF) {
+       if (nkf_isspace(mimeout_state.buf[i])) {
            (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
            base64_count ++;
        } else {
@@ -4431,8 +5080,8 @@ static void open_mime(nkf_char mode)
        }
     }
     while(*p) {
-        (*o_mputc)(*p++);
-        base64_count ++;
+       (*o_mputc)(*p++);
+       base64_count ++;
     }
     j = mimeout_state.count;
     mimeout_state.count = 0;
@@ -4441,31 +5090,32 @@ static void open_mime(nkf_char mode)
     }
 }
 
-static void mime_prechar(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+mime_prechar(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     if (mimeout_mode > 0){
-        if (c2 == EOF){
-            if (base64_count + mimeout_state.count/3*4> 73){
-                (*o_base64conv)(EOF,0);
-                OCONV_NEWLINE((*o_base64conv));
-                (*o_base64conv)(0,SP);
-                base64_count = 1;
-            }
-        } else {
-            if (base64_count + mimeout_state.count/3*4> 66) {
-                (*o_base64conv)(EOF,0);
-                OCONV_NEWLINE((*o_base64conv));
-                (*o_base64conv)(0,SP);
-                base64_count = 1;
-                mimeout_mode = -1;
-            }
-        }
+       if (c2 == EOF){
+           if (base64_count + mimeout_state.count/3*4> 73){
+               (*o_base64conv)(EOF,0);
+               oconv_newline(o_base64conv);
+               (*o_base64conv)(0,SP);
+               base64_count = 1;
+           }
+       } else {
+           if ((c2 != 0 || c1 > DEL) && base64_count + mimeout_state.count/3*4> 66) {
+               (*o_base64conv)(EOF,0);
+               oconv_newline(o_base64conv);
+               (*o_base64conv)(0,SP);
+               base64_count = 1;
+               mimeout_mode = -1;
+           }
+       }
     } else if (c2) {
        if (c2 != EOF && base64_count + mimeout_state.count/3*4> 60) {
            mimeout_mode =  (output_mode==ASCII ||output_mode == ISO_8859_1) ? 'Q' : 'B';
            open_mime(output_mode);
            (*o_base64conv)(EOF,0);
-           OCONV_NEWLINE((*o_base64conv));
+           oconv_newline(o_base64conv);
            (*o_base64conv)(0,SP);
            base64_count = 1;
            mimeout_mode = -1;
@@ -4473,7 +5123,8 @@ static void mime_prechar(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
     }
 }
 
-static void close_mime(void)
+static void
+close_mime(void)
 {
     (*o_mputc)('?');
     (*o_mputc)('=');
@@ -4481,20 +5132,21 @@ static void close_mime(void)
     mimeout_mode = 0;
 }
 
-static void eof_mime(void)
+static void
+eof_mime(void)
 {
     switch(mimeout_mode) {
     case 'Q':
     case 'B':
        break;
     case 2:
-       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((mimeout_state.state & 0x3)<< 4)]);
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((nkf_state->mimeout_state & 0x3)<< 4)]);
        (*o_mputc)('=');
        (*o_mputc)('=');
        base64_count += 3;
        break;
     case 1:
-       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((mimeout_state.state & 0xF) << 2)]);
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((nkf_state->mimeout_state & 0xF) << 2)]);
        (*o_mputc)('=');
        base64_count += 2;
        break;
@@ -4507,7 +5159,8 @@ static void eof_mime(void)
     }
 }
 
-static void mimeout_addchar(nkf_char c)
+static void
+mimeout_addchar(nkf_char c)
 {
     switch(mimeout_mode) {
     case 'Q':
@@ -4523,60 +5176,61 @@ static void mimeout_addchar(nkf_char c)
            (*o_mputc)(c);
            base64_count++;
        }
-        break;
+       break;
     case 'B':
-        mimeout_state.state=c;
-        (*o_mputc)(basis_64[c>>2]);
-        mimeout_mode=2;
-        base64_count ++;
-        break;
+       nkf_state->mimeout_state=c;
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[c>>2]);
+       mimeout_mode=2;
+       base64_count ++;
+       break;
     case 2:
-        (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((mimeout_state.state & 0x3)<< 4) | ((c & 0xF0) >> 4)]);
-        mimeout_state.state=c;
-        mimeout_mode=1;
-        base64_count ++;
-        break;
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((nkf_state->mimeout_state & 0x3)<< 4) | ((c & 0xF0) >> 4)]);
+       nkf_state->mimeout_state=c;
+       mimeout_mode=1;
+       base64_count ++;
+       break;
     case 1:
-        (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((mimeout_state.state & 0xF) << 2) | ((c & 0xC0) >>6)]);
-        (*o_mputc)(basis_64[c & 0x3F]);
-        mimeout_mode='B';
-        base64_count += 2;
-        break;
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[((nkf_state->mimeout_state & 0xF) << 2) | ((c & 0xC0) >>6)]);
+       (*o_mputc)(basis_64[c & 0x3F]);
+       mimeout_mode='B';
+       base64_count += 2;
+       break;
     default:
        (*o_mputc)(c);
        base64_count++;
-        break;
+       break;
     }
 }
 
-static void mime_putc(nkf_char c)
+static void
+mime_putc(nkf_char c)
 {
     int i, j;
     nkf_char lastchar;
 
     if (mimeout_f == FIXED_MIME){
-        if (mimeout_mode == 'Q'){
-            if (base64_count > 71){
-                if (c!=CR && c!=LF) {
-                    (*o_mputc)('=');
-                    PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
-                }
-                base64_count = 0;
-            }
-        }else{
-            if (base64_count > 71){
-                eof_mime();
-                PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
-                base64_count = 0;
-            }
-            if (c == EOF) { /* c==EOF */
-                eof_mime();
-            }
-        }
-        if (c != EOF) { /* c==EOF */
-            mimeout_addchar(c);
-        }
-        return;
+       if (mimeout_mode == 'Q'){
+           if (base64_count > 71){
+               if (c!=CR && c!=LF) {
+                   (*o_mputc)('=');
+                   put_newline(o_mputc);
+               }
+               base64_count = 0;
+           }
+       }else{
+           if (base64_count > 71){
+               eof_mime();
+               put_newline(o_mputc);
+               base64_count = 0;
+           }
+           if (c == EOF) { /* c==EOF */
+               eof_mime();
+           }
+       }
+       if (c != EOF) { /* c==EOF */
+           mimeout_addchar(c);
+       }
+       return;
     }
 
     /* mimeout_f != FIXED_MIME */
@@ -4609,36 +5263,36 @@ static void mime_putc(nkf_char c)
                mimeout_addchar(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
            }
        }
-        return;
+       return;
     }
 
     if (mimeout_state.count > 0){
-        lastchar = mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count - 1];
+       lastchar = mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count - 1];
     }else{
-        lastchar = -1;
+       lastchar = -1;
     }
 
     if (mimeout_mode=='Q') {
-        if (c <= DEL && (output_mode==ASCII ||output_mode == ISO_8859_1)) {
+       if (c <= DEL && (output_mode==ASCII ||output_mode == ISO_8859_1)) {
            if (c == CR || c == LF) {
                close_mime();
                (*o_mputc)(c);
                base64_count = 0;
                return;
-            } else if (c <= SP) {
-                close_mime();
+           } else if (c <= SP) {
+               close_mime();
                if (base64_count > 70) {
-                   PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
+                   put_newline(o_mputc);
                    base64_count = 0;
                }
                if (!nkf_isblank(c)) {
                    (*o_mputc)(SP);
                    base64_count++;
                }
-            } else {
+           } else {
                if (base64_count > 70) {
                    close_mime();
-                   PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
+                   put_newline(o_mputc);
                    (*o_mputc)(SP);
                    base64_count = 1;
                    open_mime(output_mode);
@@ -4648,131 +5302,160 @@ static void mime_putc(nkf_char c)
                    return;
                }
            }
-           (*o_mputc)(c);
-           base64_count++;
-        }
-        return;
+           if (c != 0x1B) {
+               (*o_mputc)(c);
+               base64_count++;
+               return;
+           }
+       }
     }
 
     if (mimeout_mode <= 0) {
-        if (c <= DEL && (output_mode==ASCII ||output_mode == ISO_8859_1)) {
-            if (nkf_isspace(c)) {
+       if (c <= DEL && (output_mode==ASCII || output_mode == ISO_8859_1 ||
+                   output_mode == UTF_8)) {
+           if (nkf_isspace(c)) {
                int flag = 0;
                if (mimeout_mode == -1) {
                    flag = 1;
                }
-                if (c==CR || c==LF) {
+               if (c==CR || c==LF) {
                    if (flag) {
                        open_mime(output_mode);
                        output_mode = 0;
                    } else {
                        base64_count = 0;
                    }
-                }
-                for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                    (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                    if (mimeout_state.buf[i] == CR || mimeout_state.buf[i] == LF){
-                        base64_count = 0;
-                    }else{
-                        base64_count++;
-                    }
-                }
+               }
+               for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                   (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                   if (mimeout_state.buf[i] == CR || mimeout_state.buf[i] == LF){
+                       base64_count = 0;
+                   }else{
+                       base64_count++;
+                   }
+               }
                if (flag) {
                    eof_mime();
                    base64_count = 0;
                    mimeout_mode = 0;
-                }
+               }
                mimeout_state.buf[0] = (char)c;
                mimeout_state.count = 1;
-            }else{
-                if (base64_count > 1
-                    && base64_count + mimeout_state.count > 76
+           }else{
+               if (base64_count > 1
+                   && base64_count + mimeout_state.count > 76
                    && mimeout_state.buf[0] != CR && mimeout_state.buf[0] != LF){
-                    PUT_NEWLINE((*o_mputc));
-                    base64_count = 0;
-                    if (!nkf_isspace(mimeout_state.buf[0])){
-                        (*o_mputc)(SP);
-                        base64_count++;
-                    }
-                }
-                mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
-                if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
-                    open_mime(output_mode);
-                }
-            }
-            return;
-        }else{
-            if (lastchar==CR || lastchar == LF){
-                for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                    (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                }
-                base64_count = 0;
-                mimeout_state.count = 0;
-            }
-            if (lastchar==SP) {
-                for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count-1;i++) {
-                    (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                    base64_count++;
-                }
-                mimeout_state.buf[0] = SP;
-                mimeout_state.count = 1;
-            }
-            open_mime(output_mode);
-        }
+                   static const char *str = "boundary=\"";
+                   static int len = 10;
+                   i = 0;
+
+                   for (; i < mimeout_state.count - len; ++i) {
+                       if (!strncmp((char *)(mimeout_state.buf+i), str, len)) {
+                           i += len - 2;
+                           break;
+                       }
+                   }
+
+                   if (i == 0 || i == mimeout_state.count - len) {
+                       put_newline(o_mputc);
+                       base64_count = 0;
+                       if (!nkf_isspace(mimeout_state.buf[0])){
+                           (*o_mputc)(SP);
+                           base64_count++;
+                       }
+                   }
+                   else {
+                       int j;
+                       for (j = 0; j <= i; ++j) {
+                           (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[j]);
+                       }
+                       put_newline(o_mputc);
+                       base64_count = 1;
+                       for (; j <= mimeout_state.count; ++j) {
+                           mimeout_state.buf[j - i] = mimeout_state.buf[j];
+                       }
+                       mimeout_state.count -= i;
+                   }
+               }
+               mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
+               if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
+                   open_mime(output_mode);
+               }
+           }
+           return;
+       }else{
+           if (lastchar==CR || lastchar == LF){
+               for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                   (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+               }
+               base64_count = 0;
+               mimeout_state.count = 0;
+           }
+           if (lastchar==SP) {
+               for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count-1;i++) {
+                   (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                   base64_count++;
+               }
+               mimeout_state.buf[0] = SP;
+               mimeout_state.count = 1;
+           }
+           open_mime(output_mode);
+       }
     }else{
-        /* mimeout_mode == 'B', 1, 2 */
-        if ( c<=DEL && (output_mode==ASCII ||output_mode == ISO_8859_1)) {
-            if (lastchar == CR || lastchar == LF){
-                if (nkf_isblank(c)) {
-                    for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                        mimeout_addchar(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                    }
-                    mimeout_state.count = 0;
-                } else if (SP<c && c<DEL) {
-                    eof_mime();
-                    for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                        (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                    }
-                    base64_count = 0;
-                    mimeout_state.count = 0;
-                }
-                mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
+       /* mimeout_mode == 'B', 1, 2 */
+       if (c <= DEL && (output_mode==ASCII || output_mode == ISO_8859_1 ||
+                   output_mode == UTF_8)) {
+           if (lastchar == CR || lastchar == LF){
+               if (nkf_isblank(c)) {
+                   for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                       mimeout_addchar(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                   }
+                   mimeout_state.count = 0;
+               } else {
+                   eof_mime();
+                   for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                       (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                   }
+                   base64_count = 0;
+                   mimeout_state.count = 0;
+               }
+               mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
+               return;
+           }
+           if (nkf_isspace(c)) {
+               for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                   if (SP<mimeout_state.buf[i] && mimeout_state.buf[i]<DEL) {
+                       eof_mime();
+                       for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
+                           (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                           base64_count++;
+                       }
+                       mimeout_state.count = 0;
+                   }
+               }
+               mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
+               if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
+                   eof_mime();
+                   for (j=0;j<mimeout_state.count;j++) {
+                       (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[j]);
+                       base64_count++;
+                   }
+                   mimeout_state.count = 0;
+               }
+               return;
+           }
+           if (mimeout_state.count>0 && SP<c && c!='=') {
+               mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
+               if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
+                   j = mimeout_state.count;
+                   mimeout_state.count = 0;
+                   for (i=0;i<j;i++) {
+                       mimeout_addchar(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
+                   }
+               }
                return;
-            }
-            if (c==SP || c==TAB || c==CR || c==LF) {
-                for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                    if (SP<mimeout_state.buf[i] && mimeout_state.buf[i]<DEL) {
-                        eof_mime();
-                        for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                            (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                            base64_count++;
-                        }
-                        mimeout_state.count = 0;
-                    }
-                }
-                mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
-                if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
-                    eof_mime();
-                    for (i=0;i<mimeout_state.count;i++) {
-                        (*o_mputc)(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                        base64_count++;
-                    }
-                    mimeout_state.count = 0;
-                }
-                return;
            }
-            if (mimeout_state.count>0 && SP<c && c!='=') {
-                mimeout_state.buf[mimeout_state.count++] = (char)c;
-                if (mimeout_state.count>MIMEOUT_BUF_LENGTH) {
-                    j = mimeout_state.count;
-                    mimeout_state.count = 0;
-                    for (i=0;i<j;i++) {
-                        mimeout_addchar(mimeout_state.buf[i]);
-                    }
-                }
-                return;
-            }
-        }
+       }
     }
     if (mimeout_state.count>0) {
        j = mimeout_state.count;
@@ -4794,7 +5477,8 @@ static void mime_putc(nkf_char c)
     mimeout_addchar(c);
 }
 
-void base64_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
+static void
+base64_conv(nkf_char c2, nkf_char c1)
 {
     mime_prechar(c2, c1);
     (*o_base64conv)(c2,c1);
@@ -4807,36 +5491,32 @@ typedef struct nkf_iconv_t {
     size_t input_buffer_size;
     char *output_buffer;
     size_t output_buffer_size;
-}
+};
 
-nkf_iconv_t nkf_iconv_new(char *tocode, char *fromcode)
+static nkf_iconv_t
+nkf_iconv_new(char *tocode, char *fromcode)
 {
     nkf_iconv_t converter;
 
     converter->input_buffer_size = IOBUF_SIZE;
-    converter->input_buffer = malloc(converter->input_buffer_size);
-    if (converter->input_buffer == NULL)
-        perror("can't malloc");
-
+    converter->input_buffer = nkf_xmalloc(converter->input_buffer_size);
     converter->output_buffer_size = IOBUF_SIZE * 2;
-    converter->output_buffer = malloc(converter->output_buffer_size);
-    if (converter->output_buffer == NULL)
-        perror("can't malloc");
-
+    converter->output_buffer = nkf_xmalloc(converter->output_buffer_size);
     converter->cd = iconv_open(tocode, fromcode);
     if (converter->cd == (iconv_t)-1)
     {
-        switch (errno) {
-        case EINVAL:
-            perror(fprintf("iconv doesn't support %s to %s conversion.", fromcode, tocode));
-            return -1;
-        default:
-            perror("can't iconv_open");
-        }
+       switch (errno) {
+       case EINVAL:
+           perror(fprintf("iconv doesn't support %s to %s conversion.", fromcode, tocode));
+           return -1;
+       default:
+           perror("can't iconv_open");
+       }
     }
 }
 
-size_t nkf_iconv_convert(nkf_iconv_t *converter, FILE *input)
+static size_t
+nkf_iconv_convert(nkf_iconv_t *converter, FILE *input)
 {
     size_t invalid = (size_t)0;
     char *input_buffer = converter->input_buffer;
@@ -4846,61 +5526,63 @@ size_t nkf_iconv_convert(nkf_iconv_t *converter, FILE *input)
     int c;
 
     do {
-        if (c != EOF) {
-            while ((c = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
-                input_buffer[input_length++] = c;
-                if (input_length < converter->input_buffer_size) break;
-            }
-        }
-
-        size_t ret = iconv(converter->cd, &input_buffer, &input_length, &output_buffer, &output_length);
-        while (output_length-- > 0) {
-            (*o_putc)(output_buffer[converter->output_buffer_size-output_length]);
-        }
-        if (ret == (size_t) - 1) {
-            switch (errno) {
-            case EINVAL:
-                if (input_buffer != converter->input_buffer)
-                    memmove(converter->input_buffer, input_buffer, input_length);
-                break;
-            case E2BIG:
-                converter->output_buffer_size *= 2;
-                output_buffer = realloc(converter->outbuf, converter->output_buffer_size);
-                if (output_buffer == NULL) {
-                    perror("can't realloc");
-                    return -1;
-                }
-                converter->output_buffer = output_buffer;
-                break;
-            default:
-                perror("can't iconv");
-                return -1;
-            }
-        } else {
-            invalid += ret;
-        }
+       if (c != EOF) {
+           while ((c = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+               input_buffer[input_length++] = c;
+               if (input_length < converter->input_buffer_size) break;
+           }
+       }
+
+       size_t ret = iconv(converter->cd, &input_buffer, &input_length, &output_buffer, &output_length);
+       while (output_length-- > 0) {
+           (*o_putc)(output_buffer[converter->output_buffer_size-output_length]);
+       }
+       if (ret == (size_t) - 1) {
+           switch (errno) {
+           case EINVAL:
+               if (input_buffer != converter->input_buffer)
+                   memmove(converter->input_buffer, input_buffer, input_length);
+               break;
+           case E2BIG:
+               converter->output_buffer_size *= 2;
+               output_buffer = realloc(converter->outbuf, converter->output_buffer_size);
+               if (output_buffer == NULL) {
+                   perror("can't realloc");
+                   return -1;
+               }
+               converter->output_buffer = output_buffer;
+               break;
+           default:
+               perror("can't iconv");
+               return -1;
+           }
+       } else {
+           invalid += ret;
+       }
     } while (1);
 
     return invalid;
 }
 
 
-void nkf_iconv_close(nkf_iconv_t *convert)
+static void
+nkf_iconv_close(nkf_iconv_t *convert)
 {
-        free(converter->inbuf);
-        free(converter->outbuf);
-        iconv_close(converter->cd);
+    nkf_xfree(converter->inbuf);
+    nkf_xfree(converter->outbuf);
+    iconv_close(converter->cd);
 }
 #endif
 
 
-void reinit(void)
+static void
+reinit(void)
 {
     {
-        struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
-        while (p->name){
-            status_reinit(p++);
-        }
+       struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
+       while (p->name){
+           status_reinit(p++);
+       }
     }
     unbuf_f = FALSE;
     estab_f = FALSE;
@@ -4915,7 +5597,7 @@ void reinit(void)
     broken_f = FALSE;
     iso8859_f = FALSE;
     mimeout_f = FALSE;
-    x0201_f = X0201_DEFAULT;
+    x0201_f = NKF_UNSPECIFIED;
     iso2022jp_f = FALSE;
 #if defined(UTF8_INPUT_ENABLE) || defined(UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE)
     ms_ucs_map_f = UCS_MAP_ASCII;
@@ -4956,10 +5638,10 @@ void reinit(void)
     x0213_f = FALSE;
 #endif
     {
-        int i;
-        for (i = 0; i < 256; i++){
-            prefix_table[i] = 0;
-        }
+       int i;
+       for (i = 0; i < 256; i++){
+           prefix_table[i] = 0;
+       }
     }
     hold_count = 0;
     mimeout_state.count = 0;
@@ -4998,7 +5680,6 @@ void reinit(void)
     input_eol = 0;
     prev_cr = 0;
     option_mode = 0;
-    init_broken_state();
     z_prev2=0,z_prev1=0;
 #ifdef CHECK_OPTION
     iconv_for_check = 0;
@@ -5006,12 +5687,14 @@ void reinit(void)
     input_codename = NULL;
     input_encoding = NULL;
     output_encoding = NULL;
+    nkf_state_init();
 #ifdef WIN32DLL
     reinitdll();
 #endif /*WIN32DLL*/
 }
 
-int module_connection(void)
+static int
+module_connection(void)
 {
     if (input_encoding) set_input_encoding(input_encoding);
     if (!output_encoding) {
@@ -5024,13 +5707,19 @@ int module_connection(void)
     set_output_encoding(output_encoding);
     oconv = nkf_enc_to_oconv(output_encoding);
     o_putc = std_putc;
+    if (nkf_enc_unicode_p(output_encoding))
+       output_mode = UTF_8;
 
-    /* replace continucation module, from output side */
+    if (x0201_f == NKF_UNSPECIFIED) {
+       x0201_f = X0201_DEFAULT;
+    }
+
+    /* replace continuation module, from output side */
 
-    /* output redicrection */
+    /* output redirection */
 #ifdef CHECK_OPTION
     if (noout_f || guess_f){
-        o_putc = no_putc;
+       o_putc = no_putc;
     }
 #endif
     if (mimeout_f) {
@@ -5064,27 +5753,27 @@ int module_connection(void)
 
     i_getc = std_getc;
     i_ungetc = std_ungetc;
-    /* input redicrection */
+    /* input redirection */
 #ifdef INPUT_OPTION
     if (cap_f){
-        i_cgetc = i_getc; i_getc = cap_getc;
-        i_cungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= cap_ungetc;
+       i_cgetc = i_getc; i_getc = cap_getc;
+       i_cungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= cap_ungetc;
     }
     if (url_f){
-        i_ugetc = i_getc; i_getc = url_getc;
-        i_uungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= url_ungetc;
+       i_ugetc = i_getc; i_getc = url_getc;
+       i_uungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= url_ungetc;
     }
 #endif
 #ifdef NUMCHAR_OPTION
     if (numchar_f){
-        i_ngetc = i_getc; i_getc = numchar_getc;
-        i_nungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= numchar_ungetc;
+       i_ngetc = i_getc; i_getc = numchar_getc;
+       i_nungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= numchar_ungetc;
     }
 #endif
 #ifdef UNICODE_NORMALIZATION
     if (nfc_f){
-        i_nfc_getc = i_getc; i_getc = nfc_getc;
-        i_nfc_ungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= nfc_ungetc;
+       i_nfc_getc = i_getc; i_getc = nfc_getc;
+       i_nfc_ungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc= nfc_ungetc;
     }
 #endif
     if (mime_f && mimebuf_f==FIXED_MIME) {
@@ -5096,16 +5785,16 @@ int module_connection(void)
        i_bungetc = i_ungetc; i_ungetc = broken_ungetc;
     }
     if (input_encoding) {
-        set_iconv(-TRUE, nkf_enc_to_iconv(input_encoding));
+       set_iconv(-TRUE, nkf_enc_to_iconv(input_encoding));
     } else {
-        set_iconv(FALSE, e_iconv);
+       set_iconv(FALSE, e_iconv);
     }
 
     {
-        struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
-        while (p->name){
-            status_reinit(p++);
-        }
+       struct input_code *p = input_code_list;
+       while (p->name){
+           status_reinit(p++);
+       }
     }
     return 0;
 }
@@ -5115,23 +5804,38 @@ int module_connection(void)
  */
 
 #if !defined(PERL_XS) && !defined(WIN32DLL)
-nkf_char noconvert(FILE *f)
+static nkf_char
+noconvert(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char    c;
 
     if (nop_f == 2)
        module_connection();
     while ((c = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF)
-      (*o_putc)(c);
+       (*o_putc)(c);
     (*o_putc)(EOF);
     return 1;
 }
 #endif
 
-int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
+#define NEXT continue        /* no output, get next */
+#define SKIP c2=0;continue        /* no output, get next */
+#define MORE c2=c1;continue  /* need one more byte */
+#define SEND (void)0         /* output c1 and c2, get next */
+#define LAST break           /* end of loop, go closing  */
+#define set_input_mode(mode) do { \
+    input_mode = mode; \
+    shift_mode = 0; \
+    set_input_codename("ISO-2022-JP"); \
+    debug("ISO-2022-JP"); \
+} while (0)
+
+static int
+kanji_convert(FILE *f)
 {
     nkf_char c1=0, c2=0, c3=0, c4=0;
-    int shift_mode =  FALSE; /* TRUE or FALSE or JIS_X_0201_1976_K */
+    int shift_mode = 0; /* 0, 1, 2, 3 */
+    int g2 = 0;
     int is_8bit = FALSE;
 
     if (input_encoding && !nkf_enc_asciicompat(input_encoding)) {
@@ -5141,12 +5845,6 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
     input_mode = ASCII;
     output_mode = ASCII;
 
-#define NEXT continue        /* no output, get next */
-#define SKIP c2=0;continue        /* no output, get next */
-#define MORE c2=c1;continue  /* need one more byte */
-#define SEND ;               /* output c1 and c2, get next */
-#define LAST break           /* end of loop, go closing  */
-
     if (module_connection() < 0) {
 #if !defined(PERL_XS) && !defined(WIN32DLL)
        fprintf(stderr, "no output encoding given\n");
@@ -5161,20 +5859,48 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
               (c2 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
               (c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
               (c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
-           nkf_iconv_utf_32(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+           nkf_char c5, c6, c7, c8;
+           if (nkf_iconv_utf_32(c1, c2, c3, c4) == (size_t)NKF_ICONV_WAIT_COMBINING_CHAR) {
+               if ((c5 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
+                   (c6 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
+                   (c7 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
+                   (c8 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                   if (nkf_iconv_utf_32_combine(c1, c2, c3, c4, c5, c6, c7, c8)) {
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c8, f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c7, f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c6, f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c5, f);
+                       nkf_iconv_utf_32_nocombine(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+                   }
+               } else {
+                   nkf_iconv_utf_32_nocombine(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+               }
+           }
        }
-       (*i_ungetc)(EOF, f);
+       goto finished;
     }
     else if (iconv == w_iconv16) {
        while ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
               (c2 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
-           if (nkf_iconv_utf_16(c1, c2, 0, 0) == -2 &&
-              (c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
-              (c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+           size_t ret = nkf_iconv_utf_16(c1, c2, 0, 0);
+           if (ret == NKF_ICONV_NEED_TWO_MORE_BYTES &&
+               (c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
+               (c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
                nkf_iconv_utf_16(c1, c2, c3, c4);
+           } else if (ret == (size_t)NKF_ICONV_WAIT_COMBINING_CHAR) {
+               if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF &&
+                   (c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                   if (nkf_iconv_utf_16_combine(c1, c2, c3, c4)) {
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c3, f);
+                       nkf_iconv_utf_16_nocombine(c1, c2);
+                   }
+               } else {
+                   nkf_iconv_utf_16_nocombine(c1, c2);
+               }
            }
        }
-       (*i_ungetc)(EOF, f);
+       goto finished;
     }
 #endif
 
@@ -5183,16 +5909,19 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
        if (!input_encoding)
 #endif
            code_status(c1);
-        if (c2) {
-            /* second byte */
-            if (c2 > DEL) {
-                /* in case of 8th bit is on */
-                if (!estab_f&&!mime_decode_mode) {
-                    /* in case of not established yet */
-                    /* It is still ambiguious */
-                    if (h_conv(f, c2, c1)==EOF)
-                        LAST;
-                   SKIP;
+       if (c2) {
+           /* second byte */
+           if (c2 > ((input_encoding && nkf_enc_cp5022x_p(input_encoding)) ? 0x92 : DEL)) {
+               /* in case of 8th bit is on */
+               if (!estab_f&&!mime_decode_mode) {
+                   /* in case of not established yet */
+                   /* It is still ambiguous */
+                   if (h_conv(f, c2, c1)==EOF) {
+                       LAST;
+                   }
+                   else {
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
                }
                else {
                    /* in case of already established */
@@ -5204,26 +5933,38 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    }
                }
            }
-           /* 2nd byte of 7 bit code or SJIS */
-           SEND;
+           else {
+               /* 2nd byte of 7 bit code or SJIS */
+               SEND;
+           }
+       }
+       else if (nkf_char_unicode_p(c1)) {
+           (*oconv)(0, c1);
+           NEXT;
        }
        else {
            /* first byte */
            if (input_mode == JIS_X_0208 && DEL <= c1 && c1 < 0x92) {
                /* CP5022x */
                MORE;
+           }else if (input_codename && input_codename[0] == 'I' &&
+                   0xA1 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xDF) {
+               /* JIS X 0201 Katakana in 8bit JIS */
+               c2 = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
+               c1 &= 0x7f;
+               SEND;
            } else if (c1 > DEL) {
                /* 8 bit code */
                if (!estab_f && !iso8859_f) {
                    /* not established yet */
                    MORE;
-                } else { /* estab_f==TRUE */
-                    if (iso8859_f) {
-                        c2 = ISO_8859_1;
-                        c1 &= 0x7f;
-                        SEND;
-                    }
-                    else if ((iconv == s_iconv && 0xA0 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xDF) ||
+               } else { /* estab_f==TRUE */
+                   if (iso8859_f) {
+                       c2 = ISO_8859_1;
+                       c1 &= 0x7f;
+                       SEND;
+                   }
+                   else if ((iconv == s_iconv && 0xA0 <= c1 && c1 <= 0xDF) ||
                             (ms_ucs_map_f == UCS_MAP_CP10001 && (c1 == 0xFD || c1 == 0xFE))) {
                        /* JIS X 0201 */
                        c2 = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
@@ -5242,25 +5983,25 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    if (iso8859_f) {
                        c2 = ISO_8859_1;
                        SEND;
-                   } else if (SP <= c1 && c1 < (0xE0&0x7F)){
+                   } else if (nkf_byte_jisx0201_katakana_p(c1)){
                        /* output 1 shifted byte */
                        c2 = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
                        SEND;
-                    } else {
-                        /* look like bogus code */
-                        SKIP;
-                    }
-                } else if (input_mode == JIS_X_0208 || input_mode == JIS_X_0212 ||
+                   } else {
+                       /* look like bogus code */
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+               } else if (input_mode == JIS_X_0208 || input_mode == JIS_X_0212 ||
                           input_mode == JIS_X_0213_1 || input_mode == JIS_X_0213_2) {
-                    /* in case of Kanji shifted */
-                    MORE;
-                } else if (c1 == '=' && mime_f && !mime_decode_mode) {
-                    /* Check MIME code */
-                    if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                        (*oconv)(0, '=');
-                        LAST;
-                    } else if (c1 == '?') {
-                        /* =? is mime conversion start sequence */
+                   /* in case of Kanji shifted */
+                   MORE;
+               } else if (c1 == '=' && mime_f && !mime_decode_mode) {
+                   /* Check MIME code */
+                   if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                       (*oconv)(0, '=');
+                       LAST;
+                   } else if (c1 == '?') {
+                       /* =? is mime conversion start sequence */
                        if(mime_f == STRICT_MIME) {
                            /* check in real detail */
                            if (mime_begin_strict(f) == EOF)
@@ -5279,31 +6020,37 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    SEND;
                }
            } else if (c1 == SI && (!is_8bit || mime_decode_mode)) {
-               shift_mode = FALSE;
+               shift_mode = 0;
                SKIP;
            } else if (c1 == SO && (!is_8bit || mime_decode_mode)) {
-               shift_mode = TRUE;
+               shift_mode = 1;
                SKIP;
-            } else if (c1 == ESC && (!is_8bit || mime_decode_mode)) {
-                if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                    /*  (*oconv)(0, ESC); don't send bogus code */
-                    LAST;
-                } else if (c1 == '$') {
-                    if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                        /*
-                        (*oconv)(0, ESC); don't send bogus code
-                        (*oconv)(0, '$'); */
-                        LAST;
-                    } else if (c1 == '@'|| c1 == 'B') {
-                        /* This is kanji introduction */
-                        input_mode = JIS_X_0208;
-                        shift_mode = FALSE;
-                        set_input_codename("ISO-2022-JP");
-#ifdef CHECK_OPTION
-                        debug("ISO-2022-JP");
-#endif
+           } else if (c1 == ESC && (!is_8bit || mime_decode_mode)) {
+               if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                   (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                   LAST;
+               }
+               else if (c1 == '&') {
+                   /* IRR */
+                   if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                       LAST;
+                   } else {
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+               }
+               else if (c1 == '$') {
+                   /* GZDMx */
+                   if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                       /* don't send bogus code
+                          (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                          (*oconv)(0, '$'); */
+                       LAST;
+                   } else if (c1 == '@' || c1 == 'B') {
+                       /* JIS X 0208 */
+                       set_input_mode(JIS_X_0208);
                        SKIP;
                    } else if (c1 == '(') {
+                       /* GZDM4 */
                        if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
                            /* don't send bogus code
                               (*oconv)(0, ESC);
@@ -5312,23 +6059,19 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                             */
                            LAST;
                        } else if (c1 == '@'|| c1 == 'B') {
-                           /* This is kanji introduction */
-                           input_mode = JIS_X_0208;
-                           shift_mode = FALSE;
+                           /* JIS X 0208 */
+                           set_input_mode(JIS_X_0208);
                            SKIP;
 #ifdef X0212_ENABLE
                        } else if (c1 == 'D'){
-                           input_mode = JIS_X_0212;
-                           shift_mode = FALSE;
+                           set_input_mode(JIS_X_0212);
                            SKIP;
 #endif /* X0212_ENABLE */
                        } else if (c1 == 'O' || c1 == 'Q'){
-                           input_mode = JIS_X_0213_1;
-                           shift_mode = FALSE;
+                           set_input_mode(JIS_X_0213_1);
                            SKIP;
                        } else if (c1 == 'P'){
-                           input_mode = JIS_X_0213_2;
-                           shift_mode = FALSE;
+                           set_input_mode(JIS_X_0213_2);
                            SKIP;
                        } else {
                            /* could be some special code */
@@ -5341,7 +6084,7 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    } else if (broken_f&0x2) {
                        /* accept any ESC-(-x as broken code ... */
                        input_mode = JIS_X_0208;
-                       shift_mode = FALSE;
+                       shift_mode = 0;
                        SKIP;
                    } else {
                        (*oconv)(0, ESC);
@@ -5350,85 +6093,108 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                        SKIP;
                    }
                } else if (c1 == '(') {
+                   /* GZD4 */
                    if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
                        /* don't send bogus code
                           (*oconv)(0, ESC);
                           (*oconv)(0, '('); */
                        LAST;
-                   } else {
-                       if (c1 == 'I') {
-                           /* This is X0201 kana introduction */
-                           input_mode = JIS_X_0201_1976_K; shift_mode = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
-                           SKIP;
-                       } else if (c1 == 'B' || c1 == 'J' || c1 == 'H') {
-                           /* This is X0208 kanji introduction */
-                           input_mode = ASCII; shift_mode = FALSE;
-                           SKIP;
-                       } else if (broken_f&0x2) {
-                           input_mode = ASCII; shift_mode = FALSE;
-                           SKIP;
-                       } else {
-                            (*oconv)(0, ESC);
-                            (*oconv)(0, '(');
-                            /* maintain various input_mode here */
-                            SEND;
-                        }
-                    }
-               } else if ( c1 == 'N' || c1 == 'n'){
-                   /* SS2 */
-                   c4 = (*i_getc)(f);  /* skip SS2 */
-                   if ( (SP<=c4 && c4 < 0x60) || (0xa0<=c4 && c4 < 0xe0)){
-                       c1 = c4;
-                       c2 = JIS_X_0201_1976_K;
-                       SEND;
-                   }else{
-                       (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
-                       /* lonely ESC  */
-                       (*oconv)(0, ESC);
-                       SEND;
-                   }
-                } else {
-                    /* lonely ESC  */
-                    (*oconv)(0, ESC);
-                    SEND;
-                }
+                   }
+                   else if (c1 == 'I') {
+                       /* JIS X 0201 Katakana */
+                       set_input_mode(JIS_X_0201_1976_K);
+                       shift_mode = 1;
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+                   else if (c1 == 'B' || c1 == 'J' || c1 == 'H') {
+                       /* ISO-646IRV:1983 or JIS X 0201 Roman or JUNET */
+                       set_input_mode(ASCII);
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+                   else if (broken_f&0x2) {
+                       set_input_mode(ASCII);
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+                   else {
+                       (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                       (*oconv)(0, '(');
+                       SEND;
+                   }
+               }
+               else if (c1 == '.') {
+                   /* G2D6 */
+                   if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
+                       LAST;
+                   }
+                   else if (c1 == 'A') {
+                       /* ISO-8859-1 */
+                       g2 = ISO_8859_1;
+                       SKIP;
+                   }
+                   else {
+                       (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                       (*oconv)(0, '.');
+                       SEND;
+                   }
+               }
+               else if (c1 == 'N') {
+                   /* SS2 */
+                   c1 = (*i_getc)(f);
+                   if (g2 == ISO_8859_1) {
+                       c2 = ISO_8859_1;
+                       SEND;
+                   }else{
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c1, f);
+                       /* lonely ESC  */
+                       (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                       SEND;
+                   }
+               }
+               else {
+                   i_ungetc(c1,f);
+                   /* lonely ESC  */
+                   (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                   SKIP;
+               }
            } else if (c1 == ESC && iconv == s_iconv) {
                /* ESC in Shift_JIS */
                if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                   /*  (*oconv)(0, ESC); don't send bogus code */
+                   (*oconv)(0, ESC);
                    LAST;
                } else if (c1 == '$') {
                    /* J-PHONE emoji */
                    if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) {
-                       /*
-                          (*oconv)(0, ESC); don't send bogus code
-                          (*oconv)(0, '$'); */
                        LAST;
-                   } else {
-                       if (('E' <= c1 && c1 <= 'G') ||
-                           ('O' <= c1 && c1 <= 'Q')) {
-                           /*
-                              NUM : 0 1 2 3 4 5
-                              BYTE: G E F O P Q
-                              C%7 : 1 6 0 2 3 4
-                              C%7 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
-                              NUM : 2 0 3 4 5 X 1
-                            */
-                           static const char jphone_emoji_first_table[7] = {2, 0, 3, 4, 5, 0, 1};
-                           c3 = nkf_char_unicode_new((jphone_emoji_first_table[c1 % 7] << 8) - SP + 0xE000);
-                           while ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
-                               if (SP <= c1 && c1 <= 'z') {
-                                   (*oconv)(0, c1 + c3);
-                               } else break; /* c1 == SO */
-                           }
+                   } else if (('E' <= c1 && c1 <= 'G') ||
+                              ('O' <= c1 && c1 <= 'Q')) {
+                       /*
+                          NUM : 0 1 2 3 4 5
+                          BYTE: G E F O P Q
+                          C%7 : 1 6 0 2 3 4
+                          C%7 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
+                          NUM : 2 0 3 4 5 X 1
+                        */
+                       static const nkf_char jphone_emoji_first_table[7] =
+                       {0xE1E0, 0xDFE0, 0xE2E0, 0xE3E0, 0xE4E0, 0xDFE0, 0xE0E0};
+                       c3 = nkf_char_unicode_new(jphone_emoji_first_table[c1 % 7]);
+                       if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) LAST;
+                       while (SP <= c1 && c1 <= 'z') {
+                           (*oconv)(0, c1 + c3);
+                           if ((c1 = (*i_getc)(f)) == EOF) LAST;
                        }
+                       SKIP;
                    }
-                   if (c1 == EOF) LAST;
-                   SKIP;
-               } else {
+                   else {
+                       (*oconv)(0, ESC);
+                       (*oconv)(0, '$');
+                       SEND;
+                   }
+               }
+               else {
+                   i_ungetc(c1,f);
                    /* lonely ESC  */
                    (*oconv)(0, ESC);
-                   SEND;
+                   SKIP;
                }
            } else if (c1 == LF || c1 == CR) {
                if (broken_f&4) {
@@ -5464,9 +6230,9 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    }
                }
            } else
-                SEND;
-        }
-        /* send: */
+               SEND;
+       }
+       /* send: */
        switch(input_mode){
        case ASCII:
            switch ((*iconv)(c2, c1, 0)) {  /* can be EUC / SJIS / UTF-8 */
@@ -5481,11 +6247,52 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                    }
                }
                break;
+           case -3:
+               /* 4 bytes UTF-8 (check combining character) */
+               if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                   if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                       if (w_iconv_combine(c2, c1, 0, c3, c4, 0)) {
+                           (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
+                           (*i_ungetc)(c3, f);
+                           w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, 0);
+                       }
+                   } else {
+                       (*i_ungetc)(c3, f);
+                       w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, 0);
+                   }
+               } else {
+                   w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, 0);
+               }
+               break;
            case -1:
                /* 3 bytes EUC or UTF-8 */
                if ((c3 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
                    code_status(c3);
-                   (*iconv)(c2, c1, c3);
+                   if ((*iconv)(c2, c1, c3) == -3) {
+                       /* 6 bytes UTF-8 (check combining character) */
+                       nkf_char c5, c6;
+                       if ((c4 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                           if ((c5 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                               if ((c6 = (*i_getc)(f)) != EOF) {
+                                   if (w_iconv_combine(c2, c1, c3, c4, c5, c6)) {
+                                       (*i_ungetc)(c6, f);
+                                       (*i_ungetc)(c5, f);
+                                       (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
+                                       w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, c3);
+                                   }
+                               } else {
+                                   (*i_ungetc)(c5, f);
+                                   (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
+                                   w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, c3);
+                               }
+                           } else {
+                               (*i_ungetc)(c4, f);
+                               w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, c3);
+                           }
+                       } else {
+                           w_iconv_nocombine(c2, c1, c3);
+                       }
+                   }
                }
                break;
            }
@@ -5496,8 +6303,6 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
                0x7F <= c2 && c2 <= 0x92 &&
                0x21 <= c1 && c1 <= 0x7E) {
                /* CP932 UDC */
-               if(c1 == 0x7F)
-                   SKIP;
                c1 = nkf_char_unicode_new((c2 - 0x7F) * 94 + c1 - 0x21 + 0xE000);
                c2 = 0;
            }
@@ -5515,12 +6320,13 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
            (*oconv)(input_mode, c1);  /* other special case */
        }
 
-        c2 = 0;
-        c3 = 0;
-        continue;
-        /* goto next_word */
+       c2 = 0;
+       c3 = 0;
+       continue;
+       /* goto next_word */
     }
 
+finished:
     /* epilogue */
     (*iconv)(EOF, 0, 0);
     if (!input_codename)
@@ -5543,17 +6349,17 @@ int kanji_convert(FILE *f)
 
 /*
  * int options(unsigned char *cp)
- * 
+ *
  * return values:
  *    0: success
  *   -1: ArgumentError
  */
-int options(unsigned char *cp)
+static int
+options(unsigned char *cp)
 {
     nkf_char i, j;
     unsigned char *p;
     unsigned char *cp_back = NULL;
-    char codeset[32];
     nkf_encoding *enc;
 
     if (option_mode==1)
@@ -5572,7 +6378,7 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                option_mode = 1;
                return 0;
            }
-           for (i=0;i<sizeof(long_option)/sizeof(long_option[0]);i++) {
+           for (i=0;i<(int)(sizeof(long_option)/sizeof(long_option[0]));i++) {
                p = (unsigned char *)long_option[i].name;
                for (j=0;*p && *p != '=' && *p == cp[j];p++, j++);
                if (*p == cp[j] || cp[j] == SP){
@@ -5592,17 +6398,22 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                cp_back = cp;
                cp = (unsigned char *)long_option[i].alias;
            }else{
+#ifndef PERL_XS
+               if (strcmp(long_option[i].name, "help") == 0){
+                   usage();
+                   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
+               }
+#endif
                if (strcmp(long_option[i].name, "ic=") == 0){
-                   nkf_str_upcase((char *)p, codeset, 32);
-                   enc = nkf_enc_find(codeset);
+                   enc = nkf_enc_find((char *)p);
                    if (!enc) continue;
                    input_encoding = enc;
                    continue;
                }
                if (strcmp(long_option[i].name, "oc=") == 0){
-                   nkf_str_upcase((char *)p, codeset, 32);
-                   enc = nkf_enc_find(codeset);
-                   if (enc <= 0) continue;
+                   enc = nkf_enc_find((char *)p);
+                   /* if (enc <= 0) continue; */
+                   if (!enc) continue;
                    output_encoding = enc;
                    continue;
                }
@@ -5626,8 +6437,7 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                    overwrite_f = TRUE;
                    preserve_time_f = TRUE;
                    backup_f = TRUE;
-                   backup_suffix = malloc(strlen((char *) p) + 1);
-                   strcpy(backup_suffix, (char *) p);
+                   backup_suffix = (char *)p;
                    continue;
                }
                if (strcmp(long_option[i].name, "in-place") == 0){
@@ -5641,8 +6451,7 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                    overwrite_f = TRUE;
                    preserve_time_f = FALSE;
                    backup_f = TRUE;
-                   backup_suffix = malloc(strlen((char *) p) + 1);
-                   strcpy(backup_suffix, (char *) p);
+                   backup_suffix = (char *)p;
                    continue;
                }
 #endif
@@ -5833,7 +6642,7 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
            output_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(EUCJP_NKF);
            continue;
        case 's':           /* SJIS output */
-           output_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(WINDOWS_31J);
+           output_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(SHIFT_JIS);
            continue;
        case 'l':           /* ISO8859 Latin-1 support, no conversion */
            iso8859_f = TRUE;  /* Only compatible with ISO-2022-JP */
@@ -5843,7 +6652,8 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
            if (*cp=='@'||*cp=='B')
                kanji_intro = *cp++;
            continue;
-       case 'o':           /* ASCII IN ESC-(-J/B */
+       case 'o':           /* ASCII IN ESC-(-J/B/H */
+           /* ESC ( H was used in initial JUNET messages */
            if (*cp=='J'||*cp=='B'||*cp=='H')
                ascii_intro = *cp++;
            continue;
@@ -5868,15 +6678,15 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
 #ifndef PERL_XS
        case 'V':
            show_configuration();
-           exit(1);
+           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
            break;
        case 'v':
-           usage();
-           exit(1);
+           version();
+           exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
            break;
 #endif
 #ifdef UTF8_OUTPUT_ENABLE
-       case 'w':           /* UTF-8 output */
+       case 'w':           /* UTF-{8,16,32} output */
            if (cp[0] == '8') {
                cp++;
                if (cp[0] == '0'){
@@ -5901,19 +6711,18 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                if (cp[0]=='L') {
                    cp++;
                    output_endian = ENDIAN_LITTLE;
+                   output_bom_f = TRUE;
                } else if (cp[0] == 'B') {
                    cp++;
-               } else {
-                   output_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(enc_idx);
-                   continue;
+                   output_bom_f = TRUE;
                }
                if (cp[0] == '0'){
+                   output_bom_f = FALSE;
                    cp++;
                    enc_idx = enc_idx == UTF_16
                        ? (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_16LE : UTF_16BE)
                        : (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_32LE : UTF_32BE);
                } else {
-                   output_bom_f = TRUE;
                    enc_idx = enc_idx == UTF_16
                        ? (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_16LE_BOM : UTF_16BE_BOM)
                        : (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_32LE_BOM : UTF_32BE_BOM);
@@ -5948,9 +6757,9 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
                    cp++;
                    input_endian = ENDIAN_BIG;
                }
-               enc_idx = enc_idx == UTF_16
-                   ? (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_16LE : UTF_16BE)
-                   : (output_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_32LE : UTF_32BE);
+               enc_idx = (enc_idx == UTF_16
+                   ? (input_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_16LE : UTF_16BE)
+                   : (input_endian == ENDIAN_LITTLE ? UTF_32LE : UTF_32BE));
                input_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(enc_idx);
            }
            continue;
@@ -5962,8 +6771,8 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
        case 'E':   /* EUC-JP input */
            input_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(EUCJP_NKF);
            continue;
-       case 'S':   /* Windows-31J input */
-           input_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(WINDOWS_31J);
+       case 'S':   /* Shift_JIS input */
+           input_encoding = nkf_enc_from_index(SHIFT_JIS);
            continue;
        case 'Z':   /* Convert X0208 alphabet to asii */
            /* alpha_f
@@ -5973,10 +6782,10 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
               bit:3   Convert HTML Entity
               bit:4   Convert JIS X 0208 Katakana to JIS X 0201 Katakana
             */
-           while ('0'<= *cp && *cp <='9') {
+           while ('0'<= *cp && *cp <='4') {
                alpha_f |= 1 << (*cp++ - '0');
            }
-           if (!alpha_f) alpha_f = 1;
+           alpha_f |= 1;
            continue;
        case 'x':   /* Convert X0201 kana to X0208 or X0201 Conversion */
            x0201_f = FALSE;    /* No X0201->X0208 conversion */
@@ -6090,7 +6899,7 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
            continue;
 #endif
        case SP:
-           /* module muliple options in a string are allowed for Perl moudle  */
+           /* module multiple options in a string are allowed for Perl module  */
            while(*cp && *cp++!='-');
            continue;
        default:
@@ -6108,7 +6917,8 @@ int options(unsigned char *cp)
 #include "nkf32dll.c"
 #elif defined(PERL_XS)
 #else /* WIN32DLL */
-int main(int argc, char **argv)
+int
+main(int argc, char **argv)
 {
     FILE  *fin;
     unsigned char  *cp;
@@ -6122,35 +6932,37 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
 #ifdef DEFAULT_CODE_LOCALE
     setlocale(LC_CTYPE, "");
 #endif
+    nkf_state_init();
+
     for (argc--,argv++; (argc > 0) && **argv == '-'; argc--, argv++) {
-        cp = (unsigned char *)*argv;
-        options(cp);
+       cp = (unsigned char *)*argv;
+       options(cp);
 #ifdef EXEC_IO
-        if (exec_f){
-            int fds[2], pid;
-            if (pipe(fds) < 0 || (pid = fork()) < 0){
-                abort();
-            }
-            if (pid == 0){
-                if (exec_f > 0){
-                    close(fds[0]);
-                    dup2(fds[1], 1);
-                }else{
-                    close(fds[1]);
-                    dup2(fds[0], 0);
-                }
-                execvp(argv[1], &argv[1]);
-            }
-            if (exec_f > 0){
-                close(fds[1]);
-                dup2(fds[0], 0);
-            }else{
-                close(fds[0]);
-                dup2(fds[1], 1);
-            }
-            argc = 0;
-            break;
-        }
+       if (exec_f){
+           int fds[2], pid;
+           if (pipe(fds) < 0 || (pid = fork()) < 0){
+               abort();
+           }
+           if (pid == 0){
+               if (exec_f > 0){
+                   close(fds[0]);
+                   dup2(fds[1], 1);
+               }else{
+                   close(fds[1]);
+                   dup2(fds[0], 0);
+               }
+               execvp(argv[1], &argv[1]);
+           }
+           if (exec_f > 0){
+               close(fds[1]);
+               dup2(fds[0], 0);
+           }else{
+               close(fds[0]);
+               dup2(fds[1], 1);
+           }
+           argc = 0;
+           break;
+       }
 #endif
     }
 
@@ -6181,150 +6993,146 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
 
     if (binmode_f == TRUE)
 #if defined(__OS2__) && (defined(__IBMC__) || defined(__IBMCPP__))
-    if (freopen("","wb",stdout) == NULL)
-        return (-1);
+       if (freopen("","wb",stdout) == NULL)
+           return (-1);
 #else
     setbinmode(stdout);
 #endif
 
     if (unbuf_f)
-      setbuf(stdout, (char *) NULL);
+       setbuf(stdout, (char *) NULL);
     else
-      setvbuffer(stdout, (char *) stdobuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
+       setvbuffer(stdout, (char *) stdobuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
 
     if (argc == 0) {
-      if (binmode_f == TRUE)
+       if (binmode_f == TRUE)
 #if defined(__OS2__) && (defined(__IBMC__) || defined(__IBMCPP__))
-      if (freopen("","rb",stdin) == NULL) return (-1);
+           if (freopen("","rb",stdin) == NULL) return (-1);
 #else
-      setbinmode(stdin);
-#endif
-      setvbuffer(stdin, (char *) stdibuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
-      if (nop_f)
-          noconvert(stdin);
-      else {
-          kanji_convert(stdin);
-          if (guess_f) print_guessed_code(NULL);
-      }
+       setbinmode(stdin);
+#endif
+       setvbuffer(stdin, (char *) stdibuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
+       if (nop_f)
+           noconvert(stdin);
+       else {
+           kanji_convert(stdin);
+           if (guess_f) print_guessed_code(NULL);
+       }
     } else {
-      int nfiles = argc;
+       int nfiles = argc;
        int is_argument_error = FALSE;
-      while (argc--) {
+       while (argc--) {
            input_codename = NULL;
            input_eol = 0;
 #ifdef CHECK_OPTION
            iconv_for_check = 0;
 #endif
-          if ((fin = fopen((origfname = *argv++), "r")) == NULL) {
+           if ((fin = fopen((origfname = *argv++), "r")) == NULL) {
                perror(*(argv-1));
                is_argument_error = TRUE;
                continue;
-          } else {
+           } else {
 #ifdef OVERWRITE
-              int fd = 0;
-              int fd_backup = 0;
+               int fd = 0;
+               int fd_backup = 0;
 #endif
 
-/* reopen file for stdout */
-              if (file_out_f == TRUE) {
+               /* reopen file for stdout */
+               if (file_out_f == TRUE) {
 #ifdef OVERWRITE
-                  if (overwrite_f){
-                      outfname = malloc(strlen(origfname)
-                                        + strlen(".nkftmpXXXXXX")
-                                        + 1);
-                      if (!outfname){
-                          perror(origfname);
-                          return -1;
-                      }
-                      strcpy(outfname, origfname);
+                   if (overwrite_f){
+                       outfname = nkf_xmalloc(strlen(origfname)
+                                         + strlen(".nkftmpXXXXXX")
+                                         + 1);
+                       strcpy(outfname, origfname);
 #ifdef MSDOS
-                      {
-                          int i;
-                          for (i = strlen(outfname); i; --i){
-                              if (outfname[i - 1] == '/'
-                                  || outfname[i - 1] == '\\'){
-                                  break;
-                              }
-                          }
-                          outfname[i] = '\0';
-                      }
-                      strcat(outfname, "ntXXXXXX");
-                      mktemp(outfname);
+                       {
+                           int i;
+                           for (i = strlen(outfname); i; --i){
+                               if (outfname[i - 1] == '/'
+                                   || outfname[i - 1] == '\\'){
+                                   break;
+                               }
+                           }
+                           outfname[i] = '\0';
+                       }
+                       strcat(outfname, "ntXXXXXX");
+                       mktemp(outfname);
                        fd = open(outfname, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_EXCL,
-                                S_IREAD | S_IWRITE);
+                                 S_IREAD | S_IWRITE);
 #else
-                      strcat(outfname, ".nkftmpXXXXXX");
-                      fd = mkstemp(outfname);
-#endif
-                      if (fd < 0
-                          || (fd_backup = dup(fileno(stdout))) < 0
-                          || dup2(fd, fileno(stdout)) < 0
-                          ){
-                          perror(origfname);
-                          return -1;
-                      }
-                  }else
-#endif
-                 if(argc == 1) {
-                     outfname = *argv++;
-                     argc--;
-                 } else {
-                     outfname = "nkf.out";
-                 }
-
-                 if(freopen(outfname, "w", stdout) == NULL) {
-                     perror (outfname);
-                     return (-1);
-                 }
-                  if (binmode_f == TRUE) {
+                       strcat(outfname, ".nkftmpXXXXXX");
+                       fd = mkstemp(outfname);
+#endif
+                       if (fd < 0
+                           || (fd_backup = dup(fileno(stdout))) < 0
+                           || dup2(fd, fileno(stdout)) < 0
+                          ){
+                           perror(origfname);
+                           return -1;
+                       }
+                   }else
+#endif
+                   if(argc == 1) {
+                       outfname = *argv++;
+                       argc--;
+                   } else {
+                       outfname = "nkf.out";
+                   }
+
+                   if(freopen(outfname, "w", stdout) == NULL) {
+                       perror (outfname);
+                       return (-1);
+                   }
+                   if (binmode_f == TRUE) {
 #if defined(__OS2__) && (defined(__IBMC__) || defined(__IBMCPP__))
-                      if (freopen("","wb",stdout) == NULL)
-                           return (-1);
+                       if (freopen("","wb",stdout) == NULL)
+                           return (-1);
 #else
-                      setbinmode(stdout);
+                       setbinmode(stdout);
 #endif
-                  }
-              }
-              if (binmode_f == TRUE)
+                   }
+               }
+               if (binmode_f == TRUE)
 #if defined(__OS2__) && (defined(__IBMC__) || defined(__IBMCPP__))
-                 if (freopen("","rb",fin) == NULL)
-                    return (-1);
+                   if (freopen("","rb",fin) == NULL)
+                       return (-1);
 #else
-                 setbinmode(fin);
-#endif
-              setvbuffer(fin, (char *) stdibuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
-              if (nop_f)
-                  noconvert(fin);
-              else {
-                  char *filename = NULL;
-                  kanji_convert(fin);
-                  if (nfiles > 1) filename = origfname;
-                  if (guess_f) print_guessed_code(filename);
-              }
-              fclose(fin);
+               setbinmode(fin);
+#endif
+               setvbuffer(fin, (char *) stdibuf, IOBUF_SIZE);
+               if (nop_f)
+                   noconvert(fin);
+               else {
+                   char *filename = NULL;
+                   kanji_convert(fin);
+                   if (nfiles > 1) filename = origfname;
+                   if (guess_f) print_guessed_code(filename);
+               }
+               fclose(fin);
 #ifdef OVERWRITE
-              if (overwrite_f) {
-                  struct stat     sb;
+               if (overwrite_f) {
+                   struct stat     sb;
 #if defined(MSDOS) && !defined(__MINGW32__) && !defined(__WIN32__) && !defined(__WATCOMC__) && !defined(__EMX__) && !defined(__OS2__) && !defined(__DJGPP__)
-                  time_t tb[2];
+                   time_t tb[2];
 #else
-                  struct utimbuf  tb;
-#endif
-
-                  fflush(stdout);
-                  close(fd);
-                  if (dup2(fd_backup, fileno(stdout)) < 0){
-                      perror("dup2");
-                  }
-                  if (stat(origfname, &sb)) {
-                      fprintf(stderr, "Can't stat %s\n", origfname);
-                  }
-                  /* \e$B%Q!<%_%C%7%g%s$rI|85\e(B */
-                  if (chmod(outfname, sb.st_mode)) {
-                      fprintf(stderr, "Can't set permission %s\n", outfname);
-                  }
-
-                  /* \e$B%?%$%`%9%?%s%W$rI|85\e(B */
+                   struct utimbuf  tb;
+#endif
+
+                   fflush(stdout);
+                   close(fd);
+                   if (dup2(fd_backup, fileno(stdout)) < 0){
+                       perror("dup2");
+                   }
+                   if (stat(origfname, &sb)) {
+                       fprintf(stderr, "Can't stat %s\n", origfname);
+                   }
+                   /* \e$B%Q!<%_%C%7%g%s$rI|85\e(B */
+                   if (chmod(outfname, sb.st_mode)) {
+                       fprintf(stderr, "Can't set permission %s\n", outfname);
+                   }
+
+                   /* \e$B%?%$%`%9%?%s%W$rI|85\e(B */
                    if(preserve_time_f){
 #if defined(MSDOS) && !defined(__MINGW32__) && !defined(__WIN32__) && !defined(__WATCOMC__) && !defined(__EMX__) && !defined(__OS2__) && !defined(__DJGPP__)
                        tb[0] = tb[1] = sb.st_mtime;
@@ -6349,6 +7157,7 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
                            fprintf(stderr, "Can't rename %s to %s\n",
                                    origfname, backup_filename);
                        }
+                       nkf_xfree(backup_filename);
                    }else{
 #ifdef MSDOS
                        if (unlink(origfname)){
@@ -6356,27 +7165,27 @@ int main(int argc, char **argv)
                        }
 #endif
                    }
-                  if (rename(outfname, origfname)) {
-                      perror(origfname);
-                      fprintf(stderr, "Can't rename %s to %s\n",
-                              outfname, origfname);
-                  }
-                  free(outfname);
-              }
-#endif
-          }
-      }
+                   if (rename(outfname, origfname)) {
+                       perror(origfname);
+                       fprintf(stderr, "Can't rename %s to %s\n",
+                               outfname, origfname);
+                   }
+                   nkf_xfree(outfname);
+               }
+#endif
+           }
+       }
        if (is_argument_error)
            return(-1);
     }
 #ifdef EASYWIN /*Easy Win */
     if (file_out_f == FALSE)
-        scanf("%d",&end_check);
+       scanf("%d",&end_check);
     else
-        fclose(stdout);
+       fclose(stdout);
 #else /* for Other OS */
     if (file_out_f == TRUE)
-        fclose(stdout);
+       fclose(stdout);
 #endif /*Easy Win */
     return (0);
 }